FIGURE 10.2 Concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions in equilibrium with the calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide solids, respectively. (From Powell, S. T. (1954). Water Conditioning for Industry. McGraw-Hill, New York. With permission.)

It has been found experimentally that adding lime to satisfy the stoichiometric amount for precipitating Mg(OH)2 does not raise the pH value to 10.4. Lime dissolves in water according to the following reaction: CaO + HOH ^ Ca(OH)2 ^ Ca2+ + 2OH-. Empirically, based on this reaction (equivalent mass = CaO/2), 1.0 milligram-equivalent per liter of water of excess alkalinity over the computed stoichiometric amount is needed to raise the pH to 10.4. This means that this amount must be added if the pH is to be maintained at this level. Letting MCaOExcess be the total amount of excess lime and V be the volume of water treated in cubic meters,

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