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FIGURE 14.1 Structural formulas of various forms of phosphates.

FIGURE 14.1 Structural formulas of various forms of phosphates.

acid, dipolyphosphoric acid, and tripolyphosphoric acid has a single bond with the central phosphorus atom. Oxygen has six electrons in its valence shell, therefore, this indicates that phosphorus has shared two of its own valence electrons to oxygen without oxygen sharing any of its electrons to phosphorus. The acceptance by oxygen of these phosphorus electrons, completes its valence orbitals to the required eight electrons for stability.

All of the hydrogen atoms are ionizable. This means that the largest negative charge for the complete ionization of orthophosphoric acid is 3-; that of trimet-aphosphoric acid is also 3-. Dipolyphosphoric acid will have 4- as the largest negative charge and tripolyphosphoric acid will have 5- as the largest negative charge. The charges in organic phosphates depend upon the organic backbone the phosphates are attached to and how many of the phosphate radicals are being attached.

The phosphorus concentration in domestic wastewaters varies from 3 to 15 mg/L and that in lake surface waters, from 0.01 to 0.04 mg/L all measured as P. These values include all the forms of phosphorus.

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