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Using the packed density of bed material pp kg/m , the volume of bed can be calculated. Let CatTBedVol and AnionTBedVol be the respective volumes in m3. Thus, gErqilcig'lXQXtjn')

. . , T_1 ])(Q)(tint)( 1 +swell) r1000) AnionTBedVol = -—-I -^pJ (16.12)

A very important property of exchanger beds is percentage of swell. This actually determines the final size of the tank into which the material is to be put when the unit is put into operation. Thus, we use the parameter swell, which is the fraction of swelling of the bed. Values of this parameter vary over a wide range from zero for zeolites (greensand) to 1.0 for polystyrene iminodiacetate. Thus, an experiment should be performed on any given exchanger to determine percent swell or the manufacturer should be consulted.

Example 16.3 Using a bed exchanger, 75 m of water per day is to be treated for hardness removal between regenerations having intervals of 8 h. The raw water contains 400 mg/L of hardness as CaCO3. The exchanger is a resin of exchange

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