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(b) With recycle: Use the same operating pressure of 364,758.82 N/m absolute

0010 = 4.29(R)(0.95)[0.5(9.2)(364,758.82) - 9.2(101,330)] R = 1 Ans

Subnatant flow area, As = —^4,00)——— = 66.84 m2 Ans

Note: This example shows that recycling is of no use. It increases the overflow area and it needs additional piping for the recycling.

glossary

Air-to-solids ratio—The ratio of mass of air used to the mass of solids introduced into the flotation unit.

Bar rack—Also called a bar screen, this is a device composed of large bars spaced widely far apart to separate large objects from a flowing water.

Clarification zone—In a settling process, this is the zone where the water is clarified.

Compression settling—Also called type 4 settling, this is a zone settling where compression or compaction of the particle mass is occurring at the same time.

Compression zone—In a settling or thickening process, this is the zone B where the thickened sludge from the thickening zone is further compressed, compacted, and consolidated.

Critical concentration—In a batch settling or thickening test, the concentration of solids when the uniform velocity zone disappears.

Critical section—Also called terminal section, this is the location in a thickener where the limiting flux is transpiring.

Detention time—Also called retention time and removal time, this is the average time that particles of water have stayed inside a tank.

Discrete particles—Particles that settle independent of the presence of other particles.

Discrete settling—Also called type 1 settling, this refers to the removal of discrete particles.

Flocculent particles—Particles that tend to form aggregates with other particles.

Flocculent settling—Also called type 2 settling, this is a settling of flocculent particles.

Flow-through velocity—The horizontal velocity in a rectangular clarifier.

Flotation—A unit operation in which solids are made to float to the surface on account of their adhering to minute bubbles of gases (air) that rises to the surface.

Hydraulic loading rate—Flow rate divided by the surficial area. Also called hydraulic overflow rate.

Inlet zone—In a sedimentation basin, the transition into the settling zone aimed at properly introducing the inflow into the tank.

Limiting solids flux—The solids flux that is equivalent to the rate of mass withdrawal from the bottom of the thickener.

Microstrainer—A device constructed of straining materials made of a very fine fabric or screen designed to remove minute particles from water.

Outlet zone—In a sedimentation basin, the part where the settled water is taken off into the effluent launder.

Overflow rate—Flow rate divided by the surficial area. Also called hydraulic loading rate.

Removal time—Also called detention time and retention time, this is the average time that particles of water have stayed inside a tank.

Retention time—Also called detention time and removal time, this is the average time that particles of water have stayed inside a tank.

Screening—A unit operation that separates materials into different sizes.

Settling—A unit operation in which solids are drawn toward a source of attraction.

Settling zone—In a sedimentation basin, this is the part where the suspended solids load of the inflow is removed to be deposited into the sludge zone below.

Sludge zone—In a sedimentation basin, this is the part where solids are deposited.

Solids flux—The transport of solids through a unit normal area per unit time.

Thickening zone—In a settling or thickening process, this is the zone where the sludge is concentrated.

Underflow concentration—The concentration withdrawn from the bottom of the thickener.

Uniform settling zone—In a settling or thickening process, this is the zone where an interface with the clarification zone settles at a constant rate.

Zone settling—Also called type 3 settling, this is a form of settling which refers to the removal of particles that settle in a contiguous zone.

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