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8.13 A breakthrough experiment is conducted for phenol producing the results below. Determine the length S of the active zone. The diameter of the column used is 2.5 cm, and the packed density of the bed is 721.58 kg/m .

8.14 A wastewater containing 25 mg/L of phenol and having the characteristic breakthrough of Problem 8.11 is to be treated by adsorption onto an activated carbon bed. Assume that the flow rate during the breakthrough experiment is 0.11 m /s. The X/M ratio of the bed for the desired effluent of 0.1 mg/L is 0.029 kg solute per kg carbon. If the flow rate for design is also 0.11 m /s, design the absorption column. Assume the influent is introduced at the top of the bed. The packed density of the carbon bed is 721.58 kg/m3.

8.15 A wastewater containing 25 mg/L of phenol and having the characteristic breakthrough of Problem 8.12 is to be treated by adsorption onto an activated carbon bed. Assume that the flow rate during the breakthrough experiment is 0.11 m /s. The X/M ratio of the bed for the desired effluent of 0.1 mg/L is 0.029 kg solute per kg carbon. If the flow rate for design is also 0.11 m /s, design the absorption column. Assume the influent is introduced at the top of the bed. The packed density of the carbon bed is 721.58 kg/m3.

8.16 A wastewater containing 25 mg/L of phenol and having the characteristic breakthrough of Problem 8.13 is to be treated by adsorption onto an activated carbon bed. Assume that the flow rate during the breakthrough experiment is 0.11 m /s. The X/M ratio of the bed for the desired effluent of 0.1 mg/L is 0.029 kg solute per kg carbon. If the flow rate for design is also 0.11 m /s, design the absorption column. Assume the influent is introduced at the top of the bed. The packed density of the carbon bed is 721.58 kg/m3.

8.17 A wastewater containing 25 mg/L of phenol and having the characteristic breakthrough of Problem 8.12 is to be treated by adsorption onto an activated carbon bed. Assume that the flow rate during the breakthrough experiment is 0.11 m /s. The X/M ratio of the bed for the desired effluent of 0.1 mg/L is 0.020 kg/kg. If the flow rate for design is also 0.11 m /s, design the absorption column. Assume the influent is introduced at the top of the bed. The packed density of the carbon bed is 721.58 kg/m .

8.18 A wastewater containing 25 mg/L of phenol and having the characteristic breakthrough of Problem 8.13 is to be treated by adsorption onto an activated carbon bed. Assume that the flow rate during the breakthrough experiment is 0.11 m /s. The X/M ratio of the bed for the desired effluent of 0.1 mg/L is 0.020 kg/kg. If the flow rate for design is also 0.11 m /s, design the absorption column. Assume the influent is introduced at the top of the bed. The packed density of the carbon bed is 721.58 kg/m .

8.19 Design the column of Problem 8.14 if the feed is introduced at the bottom. The carbon is continuously removed at the bottom and continuously added at the top. Due to the countercurrent operation, assume the bed expands by 40%.

8.20 Design the column of Problem 8.15 if the feed is introduced at the bottom. The carbon is continuously removed at the bottom and continuously added at the top. Due to the countercurrent operation, assume the bed expands by 40%.

8.21 Design the column of Problem 8.16 if the feed is introduced at the bottom. The carbon is continuously removed at the bottom and continuously added at the top. Due to the countercurrent operation, assume the bed expands by 40%.

8.22 Design the column of Problem 8.17 if the feed is introduced at the bottom. The carbon is continuously removed at the bottom and continuously added at the top. Due to the countercurrent operation, assume the bed expands by 40%.

8.23 Design the column of Problem 8.18 if the feed is introduced at the bottom. The carbon is continuously removed at the bottom and continuously added at the top. Due to the countercurrent operation, assume the bed expands by 40%.

8.24 A brackish water of 379 m /day containing 4000 mg/L of ions expressed as NaCl is to be deionized using an electrodialysis unit. The coulomb efficiency is 0.78 and there are 400 membranes in the unit each measuring 51 cm x 46 cm. Resistance across the unit is 6 ohms and the current efficiency is 90%. Estimate the power requirement.

8.25 A brackish water of 379 m /day is to be deionized using an electrodialysis unit. The coulomb efficiency is 0.78, and 400 membranes are in the unit each measuring 51 cm x 46 cm. Resistance across the unit is 6 ohms and the current efficiency is 90%. The input power required to run the unit is 93.3 kW. Estimate the concentration of ions to be removed expressed as NaCl.

8.26 A brackish water containing 4000 mg/L of ions expressed as NaCl is to be deionized using an electrodialysis unit. The coulomb efficiency is 0.78, and 400 membranes are in the unit each measuring 51cm x 46 cm. Resistance across the unit is 6 ohms and the current efficiency is 90%. The input power required to run the unit is 93.3 kW. Estimate the input flow to the unit.

8.27 A brackish water containing 4,000 mg/L of ions expressed as NaCl is to be deionized using an electrodialysis unit. There are 400 membranes in the unit each measuring 51cm x 46 cm. Resistance across the unit is 6 ohms and the current efficiency is 90%. The input power required to run the unit is 93.3 kW. If the inflow to the unit is 379 m /day, calculate the coulomb efficiency.

8.28 A brackish water containing 4,000 mg/L of ions expressed as NaCl is to be deionized using an electrodialysis unit. Resistance across the unit is 6 ohms and the current efficiency is 90%. The input power required to run the unit is 93.3 kW. If the inflow to the unit is 379 m /day and the coulomb efficiency is 0.78, estimate the number of membranes in the unit.

8.29 A brackish water containing 4,000 mg/L of ions expressed as NaCl is to be deionized using an electrodialysis unit. Resistance across the unit is 6 ohms. The input power required to run the unit is 93.3 kW. The inflow to the unit is 379 m /day, the coulomb efficiency is 0.78, and 400 membranes are in the unit each measuring 51 cm x 46 cm. Calculate the current efficiency.

8.30 A brackish water containing 4,000 mg/L of ions expressed as NaCl is to be deionized using an electrodialysis unit. The input power required to run the unit is 93.3 kW. The inflow to the unit is 379 m /day, the coulomb efficiency is 0.78, and 400 membranes are in the unit each measuring 51 cm x 46 cm. The current efficiency is 90%. What is the electric resistance across the unit?

8.31 A brackish water of 379 m /day containing 4,000 mg/L of ions expressed as NaCl is to be deionized using an electrodialysis unit. There are 400 membranes in the unit each measuring 51 cm x 46 cm inches. Resistance across the unit is 6 ohms, the current and coulomb efficiencies are, respectively, 90% and 78%. Estimate the impressed current.

8.32 A brackish water of 379 m /day is to be deionized using an electrodialysis unit. There are 400 membranes in the unit each measuring 51 cm x 46 cm inches. Resistance across the unit is 6 ohms, the current and coulomb efficiencies are, respectively, 90% and 78%. If the impressed current is 124.76 amperes, what is the concentration of the ions in the raw water expressed as NaCl?

8.33 A brackish water containing 4,000 mg/L of ions expressed as NaCl is to be deionized using an electrodialysis unit. There are 400 membranes in the unit each measuring 51 cm x 46 cm inches. Resistance across the unit is 6 ohms, the current and coulomb efficiencies are, respectively, 90% and 78%. If the impressed current is 124.76 amperes, what is the influent flow to the unit?

8.34 A brackish water containing 4,000 mg/L of ions expressed as NaCl is to be deionized using an electrodialysis unit. There are 400 membranes in the unit each measuring 51 cm x 46 cm inches. Resistance across the unit is 6 ohms; the current efficiency is 90%. If the impressed current is 124.76 amperes and the influent flow to the unit is 379 m /day, what is the coulomb efficiency?

8.35 A brackish water containing 4,000 mg/L of ions expressed as NaCl is to be deionized using an electrodialysis unit. Resistance across the unit is 6 ohms, the current and coulomb efficiencies are, respectively, 90% and 78%. If the impressed current is 124.76 amperes and the influent flow to the unit is 379 m /day, calculate the number of membranes in the unit.

8.36 A brackish water containing 4,000 mg/L of ions expressed as NaCl is to be deionized using an electrodialysis unit. Resistance across the unit is 6 ohms; the coulomb efficiency is 78%. If the impressed current is

124.76 amperes and the influent flow to the unit is 379 m /day, calculate the current efficiency. 8.37 A long term experiment for a CA membrane module operated at 2758 kPag using a feed of 2,000 mg/L of NaCl at 25°C produces the results below. What is the expected flux at the end of one year of operation? What is the expected flux at the end of two years? How long does it take for the flux to decrease to 0.37 m3/m2 • day?

8.38 The feedwater to an RO unit contains 3,000 mg/L of NaCl, 300 mg/L of CaCl2, and 400 mg/L of MgSO4. The membrane used is cellulose acetate.

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