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16.3 Using a bed exchanger, a volume of water is treated for hardness removal between regenerations having intervals of 8 h. The raw water contains 400 mg/L of hardness as CaCO3. The exchanger is a resin of exchange capacity of 1412.8 geq/m . Assume that the packed density of the resin is 720 kg/m . The mass of exchanger material is 51.02 kg and its volume is 0.13 m at a swell of 0.8. Calculate the volume of water treated.

16.4 Using a bed exchanger, a volume of water is treated for hardness removal. The raw water contains 400 mg/L of hardness as CaCO3. The exchanger is a resin of exchange capacity of 1412.8 geq/m . Assume that the packed density of the resin is 720 kg/m . The mass of exchanger material is 51.02 kg and its volume is 0.072 m . Calculate the volume of water treated if regeneration is to take place every 8 h.

16.5 Using a bed exchanger, a volume of water is treated for hardness removal. The raw water contains 400 mg/L of hardness as CaCO3. Assume that the packed density of the resin is 720 kg/m . The mass of exchanger material is 51.02 kg and its volume is 0.13 m at a swell of 0.8. Calculate the exchange capacity if the volume of water treated is 75 m /d and if regeneration is to take place every 8 h.

16.6 Using a bed exchanger, a volume of water is treated for hardness removal. The raw water contains 400 mg/L of hardness as CaCO3. Assume that the packed density of the resin is 720 kg/m . The mass of exchanger material is 51.02 kg and its volume is 0.13 m at a swell of 0.8. The exchange capacity

is 1412.8 geq/m and the volume of water treated is 75 m /d. Determine the interval of regeneration.

16.7 Using a bed exchanger, 75 m of water per day is to be treated for hardness removal between regenerations having intervals of 8 h. The raw water contains 80 mg/L of Ca2+and 15 mg/L of Mg2+. The exchanger is a resin of exchange capacity of 1412.8 geq/m . Assume that the packed density of the resin is 720 kg/m . The kilograms of sodium chloride regenerant required is 0.26. Calculate R assuming that all of the cations were removed.

16.8 Using a bed exchanger, a volume of water is to be treated for hardness removal between regenerations having intervals of 8 h. The raw water contains 80 mg/L of Ca2+ and 15 mg/L of Mg2+. The exchanger is a resin of exchange capacity of 1412.8 geq/m . Assume that the packed density of the resin is 720 kg/m . The kilograms of sodium chloride regenerant required is 0.26. Calculate the volume of water treated assuming R = 2 and that all of the cations were removed.

16.9 Using a bed exchanger, 75 m of water per day is treated for hardness removal. The raw water contains 80 mg/L of Ca2+ and 15 mg/L of Mg2+. The exchanger is a resin of exchange capacity of 1412.8 geq/m . Assume that the packed density of the resin is 720 kg/m . The kilograms of sodium chloride regenerant required is 0.26. Calculate the interval of regeneration assuming R = 2 and that all of the cations were removed.

16.10 Using a bed exchanger, a volume of water is to be treated for hardness removal between regenerations having intervals of 8 hours. The raw water contains 80 mg/L of Ca2+ and 15 mg/L of Mg2+. The exchanger is a resin of exchange capacity of 1412.8 geq/m . Assume that the packed density of the resin is 720 kg/m . The total volume of the rinse and backwash requirement is 1.66 m . If the backwash and rinse per unit volume of the

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