3 meq



3 Jmeq,in/

As shown in the table, the ions in the finished water are balanced. Ans


Table 10.5 shows typical design criteria for softening systems.


Water with a high concentration of magnesium is often softened by a process called split treatment. Water softening may be done in either a single- or two-stage treatment. In a single-stage treatment, all the chemicals are added in just one basin, whereas, in a two-stage treatment, chemicals are added in two stages. In split treatment, the operation is in two stages. Part of the raw water is bypassed from the first stage (split). Excess lime to facilitate the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide to the limit of technology is added in the first stage but, instead, of neutralizing this excess, it is used in the second stage to react with the calcium hardness of the bypassed flow that is introduced into the second stage.

Referring to Figure 10.3, let Q be the rate of flow of water treated, Mgr be the concentration of Mg in the raw water, and Mg J be the concentration of magnesium

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