I

Trophozoites reproduce by simple division, and they may Invade the lining of the large intestine, resulting -Cysts passed in feces.

In symptoms (colitis, diarrhea, dysentery).

Extra-Intestinal amoeblasls. f

Trophozoites may Invade the blood vessels of the large Intestine and be transported to other organs In the body.

FIGURE 2.13 Life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica.

FIGURE 2.14 Phase contrast photomicrograph of cultured Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.
FIGURE 2.15 Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in section of intestine.

with the difference that the hosts in amebiasis are humans and other primates. These three diseases, however, have common distinguishing characteristics in that the causative parasite infects inside the host body and excreted in feces.

Amebiasis is diagnosed by finding the cysts of Entamoeba histolytica in a stool specimen examined under a microscope. Because the number of cysts in the stool can change from day to day, and cysts may not even be in every stool specimen, sometimes more than one stool specimen must be obtained for examination. A blood test is also available for detection of antibodies against the parasite.

To avoid transmission of the disease, several precautions may be taken. Always wash hands thoroughly with soap after using the toilet, after changing diapers, before preparing food or drink, and before eating. When traveling in tropical countries where sanitation is poor, drink only bottled water, carbonated water, or canned or bottled sodas. Boiling water for 1 minute will kill the parasite. As in the case of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, Entamoeba histolytica is not killed by low doses of chlorine or iodine; thus, do not rely on chemical water purification tablets, such as halide tablets, to prevent amebiasis. For municipal water systems, the most practical and effective way of getting rid of the parasite, as in the case of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, is the use of a properly operated and maintained filtration plant. Again, the turbidity of the effluent should be brought down to around 0.1 NTU.

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