The values of the AH298's are obtained from Table 11.2. Note that the values in the table indicate A H298 of formation having negative values. Thus, if the reaction is not a formation but a breakup such as HOHw ^ H2 + 2o2 , the sign is positive. This reaction indicates that to break the water molecule into its constituent atoms +68.317 kcal/gmmol of energy is required. The + sign indicates that the reaction is endothermic requiring energy for the reaction to occur. For the ionization of the water molecule as represented by HOH(l) as shown previously, +13.36 kcal/gmol of HOH(l) is required

The Hess's law steps for the rest of Eqs. (11.1) through (11.4) are detailed as follows:

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