Glossary

Backwashing—A method of cleaning filters where a clean treated water is made to flow in reverse through the filter for the purpose of suspending the grains to effect cleaning.

Cake-forming or cake filtration—Filtration in which cakes are formed in the process.

Dual-media gravity filter—A gravity filter composed of two filtering media.

Effective size—The size of sieve opening that passes the 10% finer of a medium sample.

Filter yield—The amount of cake formed during cake filtration.

Filtration—A unit operation of separating solids from fluids.

Granular filters—Filters where media are composed of granular materials.

Gravity filters—Filters that rely on the pull of gravity to create a pressure differential to force the water through the filter.

Hydraulic radius—Area of flow divided by the wetted perimeter or volume of flow divided by the wetted area.

Leaf filter—Filter that operates by immersing a component called a leaf into a bath of sludge or slurry and using a vacuum to suck the sludge onto the leaf.

Perforated filter—Filter whose filtering medium is made of perforated plates.

Plate-and-frame press—A pressure filter in which the mechanics of filtration is through cloths wrapped on a plates alternated and held in place by frames.

Pressure filtration—A method of filtration in which the pressure differential used to drive the filtration is induced by impressing a high pressure on the inlet side of the filter medium.

Pressure and vacuum filters—Filters that rely on applying some mechanical means to create the pressure differential necessary to force the water through the filter.

Rapid-sand filter—Gravity filter normally operated at a rate of 100 to 200

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