Glossary

Cipolleti weir—A trapezoidal weir where the notch angle compensates for the reduction in flow due to contraction.

Control section—A section in an open channel where a one-to-one relationship exists between flow and depth.

Converging zone—The portion in a venturi meter, Parshall flume, or Palmer-Bowlus flume where the cross section is progressively reduced.

Diverging zone—The portion in a venturi meter, Parshall flume, or Palmer-Bowlus flume where the cross section is progressively expanded.

Equalization—A unit operation applied to a flow for the purpose of smoothing out extreme variations in the values of the parameters.

Extreme daily mean—The mean flow rate of the extreme flow pattern.

Extreme flow pattern—Diurnal flow pattern or pattern over the cycle where the values on the curve are peak values—that is, values that are not equaled or exceeded.

Flow meters—Devices used to measure the rate of flow of fluids.

Froude number—Defined as V/ JgD.

Fully contracted rectangular weir—Rectangular weir where the flow in the channel being measured contracts as it passes through the rectangular opening.

Hydraulic depth—In an open channel, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of flow to the top width.

Parshall flume—Venturi flume invented by Parshall.

Piezometric ring—Pressure sensing holes that form a concentric circle around the center of the pipe.

Rectangular weir—Thin plate where the plate is being cut such that a rectangular opening is formed through which the flow in the channel that is being measured passes through.

Sewer—Pipe that conveys sewage.

Suppressed rectangular weir—Rectangular weir where the contraction is absent, that is, the contraction is suppressed.

Throat—The portion in a venturi meter, Parshall flume, or Palmer-Bowlus flume where the cross section is held constant.

Triangle weirs—Weirs in which the cross-sectional area of flow where the flow passes through is in the form of a triangle, also called V-notch weirs.

Venturi flume—An open-channel measuring device with a longitudinal section that is shaped like a venturi meter.

Venturi meter—Meter used to measure flow in pipes by inducing a pressure differential through reducing the cross section until reaching the throat, maintaining cross section constant throughout the throat, and expanding cross section after the throat.

Weir—Obstruction used to back up a flowing stream of liquid.

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