Glossary

Activated sludge—Microorganisms sludge subjected to reaeration.

Anoxic—An anaerobic environment where the final electron acceptor is the nitrate ion.

Anoxic denazification, normal—The actual conversion of nitrates to nitrogen gas.

Autotrophs—Microorganisms that utilize inorganics for energy.

Biological reaction—Chemical reaction mediated by an organism.

Carbonaceous reaction—The reaction of heterotrophs utilizing the carbon con1 tent of the substrate for both energy and synthesis.

Carbonaceous cell yield—The cell yield of heterotrophs, Yc.

Cell yield—Mass of microbial cells produced per unit mass of substrate.

Chemotrophs—Autotrophs that use inorganic chemicals for energy.

Denitrification—The process that converts nitrates to nitrogen gas

Endogenous growth rate—The condition of growth in which food is in short supply and in which organisms may cannibalize each other.

Enthalpy—Internal energy plus the product of pressure and volume. The change in enthalpy is equal to the heat exchange between the system and its surroundings at constant pressure.

Entropy—Measure of disorder of a system.

Entropy change—The ratio of the infinitesimal heat added to the temperature T during the infinitesimal time that the heat is added, if the heat is added reversibly.

Eulerian derivative—The rate of change of a property when the system is open plus the rate of change of the property as the masses cross the boundary of the system.

Faraday—One mole of electrons.

Free energy—Represents the useful energy (or, alternatively, the maximum energy) a system fuel can provide after the wasted energy due to entropy has been subtracted from the energy content.

Half-velocity constant—Concentration of the substrate that makes the specific growth rate equal to one-half the maximum growth rate.

Heterotrophs—Microorganisms that utilize organic materials for energy.

Heterotrophic side reaction stage—The initial stage of denitrification where heterotrophs consume the last amounts of dissolved oxygen before anaerobic conditions finally set in.

Internal energy—Refers to all the energies that are present in the system such as kinetic energies of the molecules, ionization energies of the electrons, bond energies, lattice energies, etc.

Lagrangian derivative—The rate of change of a property when the system is closed.

Logarithmic growth rate—Unlimited rate of growth rate.

Mean cell residence time (MCRT), sludge retention time (SRT), or sludge age—The biomass in the reactor divided by the net rate of biomass wasting.

Mixed liquor volatile suspended solids—The volatile solids suspended in an activated sludge reactor.

Nitrification—The oxidation of ammonia into nitrites and nitrates.

Nitrobacter—Species of bacteria that converts nitrites into nitrates

Nitrosomonas—Species of bacteria that converts ammonia into nitrates.

Nominal hydraulic retention time (NHRT)—The ratio obtained by dividing the quantity of water in the reactor by the net rate of discharge of the water from the reactor.

NO2-Reduction side reaction stage—The stage of denitrification where nitrates are converted to nitrogen gas.

Oxidative phosphorylation—A mode of electron transport where the electron released by the energy source moves through a series intermediates trapping energy in more ATP molecules than is possible in substrate-level phosphorylation.

Phototrophs—Autotrophs that use sunlight for energy.

Reaction kinetics—The subject that deals with studying how fast reactions proceed to completion.

Reversible cycle—Cycle in which a reversible process is applied in every step around the cycle

Reversible process—Process in which the original state or condition of a system can be recovered if the process is done in the opposite direction from that in which it is being currently done.

Reynolds transport theorem—A theorem that states that the rate of change of a property of a system when the boundary of the system is closed is equal to the rate of change of the property when the boundary is open plus the rate of change of the property as the masses cross the boundary of the system.

Specific growth rate—Proportional constant in the rate of change of the concentration of organisms with respect to time modeled as a first order process.

Specific substrate utilization rate—Amount of substrate consumed per unit amount of organisms produced.

Spontaneous process—A process in which the change in free energy is less than zero.

Substrate-level phosphorylation—An electron transport system where the electrons released by the energy source is absorbed by a single intermediate product within the system trapping energy in only a few molecules of ATP.

Thermodynamics—The study of the relationships between heat and other forms of energy.

Thermodynamic variables—Variables involved in the study of the relationship of heat and energy.

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