Glossary

Anion membrane—An electrodialysis membrane that allows passage of anions.

Apolar membrane—An RO membrane in which the nonpolar regions exceed the polar regions.

Activation—The process of enhancing a particular characteristic.

Active zone—A small length of column where adsorption is taking place.

Activated carbon—Carbon with enhanced adsorption characteristic.

Adsorbate—The solute adsorbed onto the surface of a solid.

Adsorbent—The solid that adsorbs the adsorbate.

Adsorption—The process of concentrating solute at the surface of a solid as a result of the unbalanced attraction of atoms at the surface of the solid.

Absorption capacity—The XIM that produces the lowest possible residual concentration of the adsorbate.

Adsorption isotherm—An equation relating the amount of solute adsorbed onto the solid and the equilibrium concentration of the solute in solution at a given temperature.

Cation membrane—An electrodialysis membrane that allows passage of cations.

Chemical activation—The process of activating carbon using chemicals.

Chemical adsorption or chemisorption—A type of adsorption aided by chemical bonding on the surfaces.

Coulomb efficiency—The fraction of the input number of equivalents of an ionized substance that is actually acted upon by an input of electricity.

Current density—The current in milliamperes that flows through a square centimeter of membrane perpendicular to the current direction.

Electrodialysis membrane—Sheet-like barriers made out of high-capacity, highly cross-linked ion exchange resins that allow passage of ions but not of water.

Flux—The rate of flow or mass flow per unit area per unit time.

Microfiltration—A reverse osmosis process that removes particles larger than those removed by ultrafiltration and operating at the lowest operating range of the reverse osmosis processes in the neighborhood of 70 kPag.

Nanofiltration—A reverse osmosis process that removes particles in the size range of the order of 0.001 fim at an operating pressure range of 500 to 1,400 kPag.

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