Activated silica—Sodium silicate that has been treated with sulfuric acid, aluminum sulfate, carbon dioxide, or chlorine. Acidity—The capacity of a solution to absorb the effect of the addition of a base. Alkalinity—The capacity of a solution to absorb the effect of the addition of an acid.

Anionic polyelectrolytes—Polyelectrolytes possessing a net negative charge in the molecules.

Cationic polyelectrolytes—Polyelectrolytes possessing a net positive charge in the molecules.

Charge neutralization—A mode of destabilizing a colloid by directly neutralizing the primary charges using counterions or colloids of opposite charges.

Central atom—In a complex ion, the atom to which several atoms are bonded.

Coagulation—The unit process of applying coagulant chemicals for the purpose of destabilizing the mutual repulsion of colloid particles, thus causing the particles to bind together.

Coagulation process—The process consisting of double-layer compression, charge neutralization, entrapment in a precipitate, and intraparticle bridging in the destabilization of a colloid.

Colloids—Agglomerates of atoms or molecules whose sizes are so small that gravity has no effect on settling them but they, instead, stay in suspension.

Copperas—Copperas is FeSO4 • 7H2O.

Coordination sphere—The ligands and the central atom in a complex ion.

Counterions—Ions opposite in charge to a given ion.

Double-layer compression—A mode of destabilizing a colloid produced by "thinning out'' the electric double layer.

Electric double layer—The layers surrounding a colloid body composed of the Stern and Gouy layers.

Electrolytes—Materials that, when placed in solution, cause the solution to be conductive to electricity.

Foam—A colloidal system of gases dispersed in a liquid.

Gaseous emulsion—A colloidal system of liquids dispersed in a gas.

Gaseous sol—A colloidal system of solids dispersed in a gas.

Gouy layer—A diffuse layer of coions to the primary charges surrounding the Stern layer.

Hydrophilic sols—Lyophilic sols that have water for the solvent.

Hydrophobic sols—Lyophobic sols that have water for the solvent.

Intraparticle bridging—A mode of destabilizing colloids using active sites in polymeric molecules for the colloids to become attached, thereby putting them in close association with each other for actual contact to promote agglomeration.

Isoelectric point—The condition in functional groups in a colloid attain equal positive and negative charges.

Jar test—A procedure where a number of doses are administered into a series of beakers for the purpose of determining the optimum dose.

Ligand exchange reaction—A complex reaction where the ligands are replaced by outside atoms.

Ligands—Atoms bonded to the central atom of a complex ion.

Liquid emulsion—A colloidal system of liquids dispersed in a liquid.

Liquid sol—A colloidal system of solids dispersed in a liquid.

Lyophilic sols—Liquid sols that bind the solvent.

Lyophobic sols—Liquid sols that do not bind the solvent.

Nonionic polyelectrolytes—Polyelectrolytes where the negative and positive charges that result in the ionization of the functional groups are balanced.

Optimum pH—The pH that produces optimal precipitation of the coagulant.

pH—The negative of the logarithm to the base 10 of the hydrogen ion activity.

Polyelectrolytes—Polymers possessing more than one electrolytic sites in the molecule.

Polymers—Molecules joined together by a chemical reaction to form larger molecules.

Precipitate entrapment—A mode of destabilizing colloid particles by using the colloids as nuclei for the initiation of the chemical precipitation of the coagulant.

Primary charges—Charges that colloids concentrate at their immediate surfaces.

Rapid or flash mix—Process of rapidly mixing the coagulant in the volume of the mixing tank.

Shear plane—The boundary between ions that move with the colloid body and ions that do not move with the body.

Solid emulsion—A colloidal system of liquids dispersed in a solid.

Solid sol—A colloidal system of solids dispersed in a solid.

Stern layer—Layer of counterions around the primary charges of a colloid.

van der Waal's force—A force of attraction that exists at the surface of a particle as a result of the unbalanced atomic forces at the surface of the particle.

Zeta potential—The electric potential at the shear plane.

Zwitter ion—Ion that exists at the isoelectric point.

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