Glossary

Available chlorine—The ratio of the mass of chlorine to the mass of the disinfectant that has the same unit of oxidizing power as chlorine.

Breakpoint—The endpoint of the breakpoint reactions.

Breakpoint reactions—Decomposition reactions before the breakpoint.

Chloramines—Reaction products of chlorine with ammonia and organic amines.

Chlorination—Application of chlorination for disinfection and for other purposes.

Combined chlorine—Chloramines composed of monochloramines and dichloramines.

Dechlorination—A unit process of removing residual chlorine disinfectants.

Disinfection—A unit process involving reactions that render pathogenic organisms harmless.

Disinfection by-products (DBPs)—By-products formed during chlorination.

Disproportionation—A chemical reaction in which an element is oxidized as well as reduced.

Flow-proportioned or flow-paced control—A method of controlling dosage that proportions the dosage according to the flow rate of the water to be disinfected.

Free chlorine—The three species of Cl2(fl?), HOCl, and OCl-.

Halogen family—Group of elements in the periodic table consisting of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.

Hypochlorinators—Hypochlorite feeders.

Log removal efficiency—Efficiency of removal corresponding to the reduction of one logarithm of the concentration of organisms.

Intensity—An intensive property of a disinfectant.

Intensive property—Property independent of the total mass or volume of the disinfectant.

Ozonation—Application of ozone for disinfection and other purposes.

Program control—Selected set of pattern of dosage that must have already been determined to effect the desired disinfection.

Residual-proportioned control—A method of controlling dosage that proportions the dosage according to the amount of chlorine residual desired.

Sterilization—A unit process involving reactions that kill all organisms.

Superchlorination—The practice of chlorinating up to and beyond the breakpoint.

Threshold concentration—The concentration at which the odor is barely detectable.

Trihalomethane—Halogen derivative of methane.

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