Calcium hydroxy apatite—Ca5(PO3)3(OH)(s).

Condensation—The formation of water molecules when substances react. Condensed phosphates—Substances containing phosphates characterized by the presence of the P-O-P bonds formed when phosphoric acid combines in a process called condensation. Metaphosphoric acid—A condensation product of phosphoric acid forming a chain of (HPO3)„.

Optimum pH—The pH at which maximum precipitation occurs or at which the concentration of the species to be removed is at the lowest. Optimum pH range—A range of pH at which the quantity of precipitates produced or the concentration of the species to be removed remaining in solution is acceptable. Orbitals—A volume of atomic space in which a maximum of two electrons occupy.

Orthophosphates—The group of species containing the of H2PO4 , HPO4 , and

PO4 groups.

Oxidation states—A condition of being an atom in relation to the extent of the atom losing or gaining electrons in its valence shell. Polyphosphates—A compound containing two or more phosphate groups in the molecule.

Shell—A volume of atomic space holding electronic orbitals. Solubility product constant—The product of the concentrations of ions, raised to appropriate powers, in equilibrium with their solid.

Valence configuration—The arrangement of electrons in an atomic shell that accounts for the chemical reactivity of the atom. Valence shell—The shell of an atom responsible for chemical reactions.

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