Glossary

ABS—Alkyl benzene sulfonate. Acidity—The ability of a substance to neutralize a base. Alcohols—Organic compounds with the general formula R-OH. Algae—Eucaryotic protists which may be unicelled, multicelled, or colonial capable of carrying photosynthesis.

Alkalinity—The ability of a substance to neutralize an acid.

Amphoteric substance—A substance that can act both as an acid and as a base.

Bacteria—Unicell procaryotic protists that are the only living things incapable of directly using particulate food.

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)—The amount of oxygen consumed by the organism in the process of stabilizing waste.

Chemical oxygen demand (COD)—A measure of the oxygen equivalent content of a given waste obtained by using a chemical such as potassium dichromate to oxidize the organic content of the waste.

Chloroplast—The site for the electron-tranport and the respiratory enzyme systems in photosynthetic eucaryotes.

Chromosomes—The DNA arranged into a readily recognizable structure inside the nucleus.

Cilia—Similar to the flagellum except more numerous, delicate, and shorter.

Clostridium botulinum—A bacterium that excretes the toxin causing botulinism.

Clostridium tetani—A bacterium that excretes toxins producing tetanus.

Coliform group—Aerobic and anaerobic, gram-negative, nonspore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that ferment lactose with gas and acid formation within 48 hours at 35°C.

Completed test—A further test for the coliform group proceeding from the confirmed test where the test is considered positive when the organisms are stained and considered negative when the organisms are not stained using the Gram staining technique.

Complex lipids—Collective name for phosphoglycerides, fats, and oils.

Condensed phosphates—One of the phosphate forms produced when phosphoric acid is heated and decomposed losing molecules of water and forming the P-O-P bonds.The process of losing water is called condensation, thus, the term.

Confirmed test—A further test for the coliform group proceeding from the presumptive test where evolution of gases within 24 to 48 ± 3 hours in the presence of a brilliant green lactose bile broth from samples incubated at 35 ± 0.5°C indicates a positive test.

Corynebacterium diptheriae—A bacterial agent for diptheria.

Cyst—A transformation protozoa undergo when adverse conditions prevail.

Cytoplasm—Living material of which the cell is composed of minus the nucleus.

Deoxygenation coefficient kc—A proportionality constant in the rate-of-disappear-ance differential equation for CBOD.

DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid—The genetic material of a cell.

Dipolyphosphoric acid—A polyphosphate of the formula H4P2O7.

Dissolved solids—Solids that pass the filter; may also be called filtrable solids.

Electron acceptor—An entity that accepts electors.

Electron donor—An entity that gives (donates) electrons.

Escherichia coli—Bacteria found in the intestinal tract of human beings.

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