Glossary

Absolute mass—Masses such as grams, kilograms, and tonnes. Masses such as gram-moles, kilogram-moles, and tonne-moles are relative masses, because they are normalizations.

Acidity—The capacity of a substance to neutralize a base.

Acids—Substances that donate a proton.

Activity and active concentration—A measure of the effectiveness of a given species in a chemical reaction.

Activity coefficient—Expresses the reactive ability of a species.

Alkalinity—The capacity of a substance to neutralize an acid.

Bases—Substances that accept protons.

Conjugate acid—The acid formed when a base accepts a proton.

Conjugate base—The base formed when an acid loses a proton.

Control mass—That part of the universe composed of masses identified for analysis; as such, if a boundary is used to enclose the masses, no other masses are allowed to pass through this boundary.

Control volume—A specific volume in space where masses are allowed to pass through, implying that its boundary is permeable to the "traffic" of masses crisscrossing through it.

Equilibrium—A state in which the rate of the forward reaction forming the products is equal to the rate of the backward reaction forming the reac-tants.

Equilibrium constant—The value of the reaction quotient for reactions at equilibrium.

Equivalent mass—The mass of any substance participating in a reaction per unit of the number of reference species or the mass of the substance per equivalent of the substance.

Equivalent concentration—Number of equivalents of solute per unit volume of mixture.

Ionization constant—Equilibrium constant for dissociated ions and their parent compound.

Hydronium ion—H3O+ is hydronium ion.

Mass concentration—Mass of solute per unit volume of the mixture (m/v basis) or mass of solute per unit mass of the mixture (m/m basis).

Molar concentration—Number of moles of solute per unit volume of mixture.

Molarity—The number of gram moles of solute per 1,000 g of solvent.

Molarity—The number of gram moles of solute per liter of solution.

Mole fraction—The molar fractional part of a certain species relative to the total number of moles of species in the mixture.

Normality—Number of gram-equivalents of solute per liter of mixture

Number of equivalents—The mass of a substance divided by its equivalent mass.

Number of references species—The number of positive or negative charges or the number of moles of electrons in chemical reactions.

Oxidation—Reaction in which a substance loses electrons.

ppm—One mass of the solute in 106 mass of the mixture.

Property—An observable quality of matter.

Reaction quotient—The product of the molar concentration of the product species raised to the respective coefficiecnts divided by the product of the molar concentration of the reactant species raised to the respective coefficients.

Reduction—Reaction in which a substance gains electrons.

References species—The positive or negative charges or the moles of electrons in chemical reactions.

Solubility product contants—Equilibrium constants for dissolving solids.

Unit vector—A vector having a magnitude of unity.

Vector—Quantity that has magnitude, direction, and orientation.

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