Filtration is a unit operation of separating solids from fluids. Screening is defined as a unit operation that separates materials into different sizes. Filtration also separates materials into different "sizes," so it is a form of screening, but filtration strictly pertains to the separation of solids or particles and fluids such as in water. The microstrainer discussed in Chapter 5 is a filter. In addition to the microstrainer, other examples of this unit operation of filtration used in practice include the filtration of water to produce drinking water in municipal and industrial water treatment plants, filtration of secondary treated water to meet more stringent discharge requirements in wastewater treatment plants, and dewatering of sludges to reduce their volume.
To differentiate it from Chapter 8, this chapter discusses only conventional filtration. Chapter 8 uses membranes as the medium for filtration; thus, it is titled advanced filtration.
Mathematical treatments involving the application of linear momentum to filtration are discussed. Generally, these treatments center on two types of filters called granular and cake-forming filters. These filters are explained in this chapter.
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