Characteristics of Water and Wastewater

Chapter 1 Quantity of Water and Wastewater

1.1 Probability Distribution Analysis

1.1.1 Addition and Multiplication Rules of Probability

1.1.2 Values Equaled or Exceeded

1.1.3 Derivation of Probability from Recorded Observation

1.1.4 Values Equaled or Not Exceeded

1.2 Quantity of Water 1.2.1 Design Period

1.3 Types of Wastewater

1.4 Sources and Quantities of Wastewater

1.4.1 Residential

1.4.2 Commercial

1.4.3 Institutional

1.4.4 Recreational

1.4.5 Industrial

1.5 Population Projection

1.5.1 Arithmetic Method

1.5.2 Geometric Method

1.5.3 Declining-Rate-of-Increase Method

1.5.4 Logistic Method

1.5.5 Graphical Comparison Method

1.6 Derivation of Design Flows of Wastewaters 1.6.1 Design Flows

1.7 Deriving Design Flows of Wastewaters from Field Survey

1.7.1 Average Daily Flow Rate

1.7.2 Peak Hourly Flow Rate

1.7.3 Maximum Daily Flow Rate

1.7.4 Minimum Hourly Flow Rate and Minimum Daily Flow Rate

1.7.5 Sustained Peak Flow Rate and Sustained Minimum Flow Rate

1.7.6 Infiltration-Inflow

1.7.7 Summary Comments for Deriving Flow Rates by the Probability Distribution Analysis

Glossary Symbols Problems Bibliography

Chapter 2 Constituents of Water and Wastewater

2.1 Physical and Chemical Characteristics

2.1.1 Turbidity

2.1.2 Color

2.1.3 Taste

2.1.4 Odor

2.1.5 Temperature

2.1.6 Chlorides

2.1.7 Fluorides

2.1.8 Iron and Manganese

2.1.9 Lead and Copper

2.1.10 Nitrate

2.1.11 Sodium

2.1.12 Sulfate

2.1.13 Zinc

2.1.14 Biochemical Oxygen Demand

2.1.15 Nitrification in the BOD Test

2.1.16 Mathematical Analysis of BOD Laboratory Data

2.1.17 Solids

2.1.19 Chemical Oxygen Demand

2.1.20 Total Organic Carbon

2.1.21 Nitrogen

2.1.22 Phosphorus

2.1.23 Acidity and Alkalinity

2.1.24 Fats, Oils, Waxes, and Grease

2.1.25 Surfactants

2.1.26 Priority Pollutants

2.1.27 Volatile Organic Compounds

2.1.28 Toxic Metal and Nonmetal Ions

2.2 Normal Constituents of Domestic Wastewater

2.3 Microbiological Characteristics

2.3.1 Bacteria

2.3.2 Test for the Coliform Group

2.3.3 The Poisson Distribution

2.3.4 Estimation of Coliform Densities by the MPN Method

2.3.5 Interpolation or Extrapolation of the MPN Table

2.3.6 Viruses

2.3.7 Protozoa Glossary

Symbols Problems Bibliography

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