Alkalinity And Acidity Expressed As CaCO3

To find the equivalent concentration of alkalinity in terms of CaCO3 proceed as follows CaCO3 + 2H+ H2CO3 + Ca2+ (12.85) Note We have reacted the alkalinity species (CaCO3) with the hydrogen ion, since it is the property of alkalinity to react with an acid. From this reaction, the equivalent mass of CaCO3 is 50. Therefore, a mass equivalent of alkalinity is equal to 50 mass units expressed as CaCO3. For example, 1 gram equivalent of alkalinity is equal to 50 grams of alkalinity expressed as...

Methods Of Disinfection And Disinfectant Agents Used

Generally, two methods of disinfection are used chemical and physical. The chemical methods, of course, use chemical agents, and the physical methods use physical agents. Historically, the most widely used chemical agent is chlorine. Other chemical agents that have been used include ozone, ClO2, the halogens bromine and iodine and bromine chloride, the metals copper and silver, KMnO4, phenol and phenolic compounds, alcohols, soaps and detergents, quaternary ammonium salts, hydrogen peroxide,...

Unit operations and unit processes

Figure 1 shows the schematic of a conventional wastewater treatment plant using primary treatment. Raw wastewater is introduced either to the screen or to the comminutor. The grit channel removes the larger particles from the screened sewage, and the primary clarifier removes the larger particles of organic matter as well as inorganic matter that escapes removal by the grit channel. Primary treated sewage is then introduced to a secondary treatment process train downstream (not shown) where the...