A Cured Meat Guide for Everyone
Different extracts obtained from wastes are already in the market or are potential candidates to be in the market soon. From the olive-oil industry wastes, extracts enriched in the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol are already prepared and marketed, as antioxidants for food preservation or as ingredients for functional foods or nutraceuticals (Fernandez-Bolanos et al., 2002). Pomegranate tannins from fruit husks (a mixture of punicalagins and other ellagitannins) can be easily prepared and introduced to the market due to the nutraceutical properties of these metabolites (Gil et al., 2000). Anthocyanin-rich extracts are prepared from grape residues produced in the wine industries. Alternatively, extracts from press-cake residues from the berry-juice industries are also being marketed and these extracts provide, in addition to pigments, an excellent source of flavonols and other phenolics (www.vtt.fi virtual maxfun). Procyanidin extracts from grape seeds are already available in the market,...
The production of vinegar is a result of the conversion of ethyl alcohol to acetic acid by the activity of acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter and Gluconobacter). These bacteria are, of course, quite acid tolerant and can survive exposure to the acidity which they generate. A major use of vinegar, apart from flavouring, is for food preservation since few microorganisms can grow in the acidic conditions. There are, however, some acidophilic microbes which survive in some rather unusual environments that generate a very low pH.
Drying has been used worldwide for centuries to preserve different food and agricultural products. Nowadays, the drying process is one of the major procedures of food preservation. The basic target of food dehydration is to remove water to a final concentration, which assures microbial spoilage of the product and minimizes chemical and physical changes of the food during storage (Crapiste and Rotstein, 1997). Drying is an energy-intensive operation consuming 9-25 of national energy in the developed countries (Mujumdar, 1995). In many practical applications, drying is a process that requires high-energy input because of the high latent heat of water evaporation and relatively low-energy efficiency of industrial dryers.
There are a number of regulatory and policy approaches regarding the issue of pollutants, which occur in wide ranges of contaminant concentrations, and ingestion habits. Mean values for NDMA used to calculate mean daily intakes based on average consumption values are somewhat meaningless when applied to individuals within a population. This is particularly true for NDMA, for which ingestion of the main dietary sources (cured meats and beer) varies from nil to multiples of the average amounts, depending on personal habits. Furthermore, looking at the relative contributions of NDMA from different sources is only marginally meaningful. It is the absolute amounts that are consumed that need to be addressed, and looking at ways to ensure that these are minimized and water plays an increasing role in those.
High concentrations of nitrosamines were widely reported in foods in the 1970s, particularly in cured meats and fish, cheese, beer, and dried milk 41 . Since NDMA is a potent liver carcinogen, this was good reason for concern. Subsequently, the mechanisms for NDMA formation in these foods were determined. Those are nitrosation of naturally occurring amine by sodium nitrite (a preservative added to fish, meat, and cheese), or by gaseous nitrogen oxides (formed during flue drying of milk and malt used in brewing). Once the routes to NDMA formation in food were understood, steps were taken to reduce its presence. Consequently, the NDMA levels reported in these foodstuff has been significantly reduced. As an example, Table 3 compares early reports of NDMA concentrations in food with those measured more recently. Reports from the 1990s to 2000s show more than an order of magnitude less NDMA than studies from the 1970s to 1980s. Preparation methods are important, for example, cooking meat...
In order to quantify the potential impacts of climate change, a representative set of indicators is defined to illustrate the changes in food production and ecosystem health over time, as proxies for the goals of food and environmental security. Preserving food security is represented by changes in two indicators
For this, it is important to define a representative set of indicators, which reflect the value over time of the water resources system for preserving food security and environmental quality. Hence, impacts are here defined as the change in the values of indicators (Table 10.2). A set of four indicators for the Walawe Basin has been defined. Preserving food security is best represented by two indicators yield (t ha) and food production (t year). Furthermore, since environmental quality is mainly related to a lack of water availability for nature (such as wetlands) and to fresh water supply for coastal ecosystems, it has been decided to use two environmental indicators outflow to the sea in 106 m3 year and years with low flow in 30 years.
Thermal technologies, including retorts and heat exchangers, are the foundation of food preservation and production methods (Richardson, 2001). Among the newer thermal technologies, radio-frequency processing causes direct heating within the volume of the food material (Rowley, 2001). Energy is absorbed by a dielectric material although the mechanism is different for radio-frequency processing compared with that using microwave frequencies. The radiation produces more uniform temperature and moisture profiles for drying and heating, with associated higher quality products however, the equipment cost mitigates against its use. Microwave technology produces more rapid heating rates for the same power and the technology is more compact although the complexity is greater and the smaller penetration depth of the lower wavelength limits its use.
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