Summary

• Rising atmospheric [CO2] has a direct effect on crop carbon uptake and water use, and these direct effects feed forward to alter economic yield.

• Major C3 grain crops show an approximate 13% increase in seed yield at ~550 ppm, the [CO2] expected for 2050. However, C4 crops do not show a significant yield increase at elevated [CO2] under conditions of adequate water supply.

• Growth at elevated [CO2] decreases grain protein and mineral content, which has significant implications for animal and human nutrition.

• Current tropospheric [O3] causes significant losses of potential crop yields ($14-26 billion), and it is likely that [O3] will rise and be a greater problem in the future.

• Our ability to accurately model future food supply depends critically on understanding crop responses to elevated [CO2], and the interaction with other climate change factors, including rising [O3], temperature and drought stress.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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