Summary

The rapid pace of climate change and its anticipated large negative effects on many agricultural systems suggest a broad and pressing need for adaptation. For farming households, the nature of these responses will depend on their recognition that climate is changing and their ability to adjust their behavior in response, perhaps through altering farm management practices or diversifying into off-farm income-generating activities. Such responses must happen in the context of climate variability, which can obscure longer-run climate trends and make more risky the adoption of various adaptation measures. Further contributing to the difficulties is the limited choice set already faced by many food insecure households, which is often a result of high productivity risk, lack of access to insurance and credit, and/ or limited connection to functioning input and output markets.

As a result, broader public and private investments will almost certainly be needed to help poor households adapt to climate change. These could include direct investments in the productivity of agriculture, such as in the development of improved crop varieties better suited to new climates; investments aimed at improving the physical and market infrastructure that typically underpin functioning economies; or investments that bolster the social safety nets that help poor households maintain their welfare in the face of a livelihood shock. While the optimal composition of investments will likely vary by country, scientific research can contribute important information concerning where climate change will hit hardest, how agricultural systems are likely to respond, and what particular investments in adaptation could yield high returns.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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