References

Ainsworth EA (2008) Rice production in a changing climate: a meta-analysis of responses to elevated carbon dioxide and elevated ozone concentration. Glob Change Biol 14:1642-1650 Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2005) What have we learned from 15 years of free-air C02 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy. New Phytol 165:351-371

Ainsworth EA, Rogers A (2007) The response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to rising [C02]: mechanisms and environmental interactions. Plant Cell Environ 30:258-270 Ainsworth EA, Davey PA, Bernacchi CJ, Dermody OC, Heaton EA, Moore DJ, Morgan PB, Naidu SL, Ra HSY, Zhu XG, Curtis PS, Long SP (2002) A meta-analysis of elevated [C02] effects on soybean (Glycine max) physiology, growth and yield. Glob Change Biol 8:695-709

Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Nelson R, Long SP (2004) Testing the "source-sink" hypothesis of down-regulation of photosynthesis in elevated [C02] in the field with single gene substitutions in Glycine max. Agric For Meteorol 122:85-94 Ainsworth EA, Beier C, Calfapietra C, Ceulemans R, Durand-Tardif M, Farquhar GD, Godbold DL, Hendrey GR, Hickler T, Kaduk J, Karnosky DF, Kimball BA, Koerner C, Koornneef M, Lafarge T, Leakey ADB, Lewin KF, Long SP, Manderscheid R, McNeil DL, Mies TA, Miglietta F, Morgan JA, Nagy J, Norby RJ, Norton RM, Percy KE, Rogers A, Soussana JF, Stitt M, Weigel HJ, White JW (2008a) Next generation of elevated [C02] experiments with crops: a critical investment for feeding the future world. Plant Cell Environ 31:1317-1324 Ainsworth EA, Leakey ADB, 0rt DR, Long SP (2008b) FACE-ing the facts: inconsistencies and interdependence among field, chamber and modeling studies of elevated [C02] impacts on crop yield and food supply. New Phytol 179:5-9

Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Leakey ADB (2008c) Targets for crop biotechnology in a future high-

CO2 and high-O3 world. Plant Physiol 147:13-19 Akimoto H (2003) Global air quality and pollution. Science 302:1716-1719 Allen LH Jr, Boote KJ, Jones JW, Jones PH, Valle RR, Acock B, Rogers HH, Dahlman RC (1987) Response of vegetation to rising carbon dioxide: photosynthesis, biomass, and seed yield of soybean. Global Biogeochem Cy 1:1-14 Amthor JS (2001) Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration on wheat yield: review of results from experiments using various approaches to control CO2 concentration. Field Crop Res 73:1-34

Arp WJ (1991) Effects of source-sink relations on photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2.

Plant Cell Environ 14:869-875 Ashmore MR (2005) Assessing the future global impacts of ozone on vegetation. Plant Cell Environ 28:949-964

Asseng S, Jamieson PD, Kimball B, Pinter P, Sayre K, Bowden JW, Howden SM (2004) Simulated wheat growth affected by rising temperature, increased water deficit and elevated atmospheric CO2. Field Crop Res 85:85-102 Ball JT, Woodrow IE, Berry JA (1987) A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the control of photosynthesis under different environmental conditions. In: Biggens J (ed) Progress in photosynthesis research. Martinus-Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands

Bannayan M, Kobayashi K, Kim HY, Lieffering M, Okada M, Miura S (2005) Modeling the interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 and N on rice growth and yield. Field Crop Res 93:237-251 2

Bernacchi CJ, Kimball BA, Quarles DR, Long SP, Ort DR (2007) Decreases in stomatal conductance of soybean under open-air elevation of [CO2] are closely coupled with decreases in ecosystem evapotranspiration. Plant Physiol 143:134-144 Bindi M, Fibbi L, Frabotta A, Chiesi M, Selveggi G, Magliulo V (1999) Free air CO2 enrichment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). In: CHIP (ed) Changing climate and potential impacts on potato yield and quality: CHIP project, final report; contract ENV4-CT97-0489. Commission of the European Union, Brussels, Belgium Bindi M, Miglietta F, Vaccari F, Magliulo E, Giuntola A (2006) Growth and quality responses of potato to elevated [CO2]. In: Nosberger J, Long SP, Norby RJ, Stitt M, Hendrey GR, Blum H (eds) Managed ecosystems and CO2, vol 187. Springer, Germany Black VJ, Black CR, Roberts JA, Stewart CA (2000) Impact of ozone on the reproductive development of plants. New Phytol 147:421-447 Bowes G (1991) Growth at elevated CO2: photosynthetic responses mediated through Rubisco.

Plant Cell Environ 14:795-806 Canadell JG, Le Quere C, Raupach MR, Field CB, Buitenhuis ET, Ciais P, Conway TJ, Gillett NP, Houghton RA, Marland G (2007) Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:18866-18870

Conley MM, Kimball BA, Brooks TJ, Pinter PJ, Hunsaker DJ, Wall GW, Adam NR, LaMorte RL, Matthias AD, Thompson TL, Leavitt SW, Ottman MJ, Cousins AB, Triggs JM (2001) CO2 enrichment increases water-use efficiency in sorghum. New Phytol 151:407-412 Cure JD, Acock B (1986) Crop responses to carbon dioxide doubling - a literature survey. Agricul

For Meterol 38:127-145 De Souza AP, Gaspar M, Da Silva EA, Ulian EC, Waclawovsky AJ, Nishiyama MY, Dos Santos RV, Teixeira MM, Souza GM, Buckeridge MS (2008) Elevated CO2 increases photosynthesis, biomass and productivity, and modifies gene expression in sugarcane. Plant Cell Environ 31:1116-1127

Dentener F, Stevenson D, Ellingsen K, Van Noije T, Schultz M, Amann M, Atherton C, Bell N, Bergmann D, Bey I, Bouwman L, Butler T, Cofala J, Collins B, Drevet J, Doherty R, Eickhout B, Eskes H, Fiore A, Gauss M, Hauglustaine D, Horowitz L, Isaksen ISA, Josse B, Lawrence M, Krol M, Lamarque JF, Montanaro V, Müller JF, Peuch VH, Pitari G, Pyle J, Rast S,

Rodriguez J, Sanderson M, Savage NH, Shindell D, Strahan S, Szopa S, Sudo K, Van Dingenen R, Wild O, Zeng G (2006) The global atmospheric environment for the next generation. Environ Sci Technol 40:3586-3594 Drake BG, Gonzalez-Meler MA, Long SP (1997) More efficient plants: a consequence of rising atmospheric CO2? Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 48:609-639 Ewert F, Rodriguez D, Jamieson P, Semenov MA, Mitchell RAC, Goudriaan J, Porter JR, Kimball BA, Pinter PJ, Manderscheid R, Weigel HJ, Fangmeier A, Fereres E, Villalobos F (2002) Effects of elevated CO2 and drought on wheat: testing crop simulation models for different experimental and climatic conditions. Agric Ecosyst Environ 93:249-266 Fangmeier A, De Temmerman L, Mortensen L, Kemp K, Burke J, Mitchell R, van Oijen M, Weigel HJ (1999) Effects on nutrients and on grain quality in spring wheat crops grown under elevated CO2 concentrations and stress conditions in the European, multiple-site experiment 'ESPACE-wheat'. Eur J Agron 10:215-229 Farquhar GD, Dubbe DR, Raschke K (1978) Gain of feedback loop involving carbon dioxide and stomata - theory and measurement. Plant Physiol 62:406-412 Farquhar GD, von Caemmerer S, Berry JA (1980) A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2

assimilation in leaves of C3 species. Planta 149:78-90 Feng Z, Kobaysahi K, Ainsworth EA (2008) Impact of elevated ozone concentration on growth, physiology, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): a meta-analysis. Glob Change Biol 14:2696-2708

Fischer RA (2007) Understanding the physiological basis of yield potential in wheat. J Agric Sci 145:99-113

Fiscus EL, Booker FL, Burkey KO (2005) Crop responses to ozone: uptake, modes of action, carbon assimilation and partitioning. Plant Cell Environ 28:997-1011 Fisher GEJ (2008) Micronutrients and animal nutrition and the link between the application of micronutrients to crops and animal health. Turk J Agric For 32:221-233 Franzaring J, Hogy P, Fangmeier A (2008) Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on the growth of summer oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Campino). Ag Ecosys Environ 128:127-134 Fuhrer J (2009) Ozone risk for crops and pastures in present and future climates. Naturwissenschaften 96:173-194

Fuhrer J, Skarby L, Ashmore MR (1997) Critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation in Europe. Environ Poll 97:91-106

Fuhrer J, Booker F (2003) Ecological issues related to ozone: agricultural issues. Environ Int 29:141-154

Grant RF, Wall GW, Kimball BA, Frumau KFA, Pinter PJ, Hunsaker DJ, Lamorte RL (1999) Crop water relations under different CO2 and irrigation: testing of ecosys with the free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment. Agric Forest Meteorol 95:27-51 Grossman-Clarke S, Pinter EJ, Kartschall T, Kimball BA, Hunsaker DJ, Wall GW, Garcia RL, LaMorte RL (2001) Modelling a spring wheat crop under elevated CO2 and drought. New Phytol 150:315-335

Heagle AS, Philbeck RB, Ferrell RE, Heck WW (1989) Design and performance of a large, field exposure chamber to measure effects of air-quality on plants. J Environ Qual 18:361-368 Heck WW, Taylor OC, Tingey DT (1987) The NCLAN economic assessment: approach, findings and implications. In: Heck WW, Taylor OC, Tingey D (eds) Assessment of crop losses from air pollutants. Elsevier Applied Science, London Hendrey GR, Miglietta F (2006) FACE technology: past, present, and future. In: Nosberger J, Long SP, Norby RJ, Stitt M, Hendrey GR, Blum H (eds) Managed ecosystems and CO2, vol 187. Springer, Germany

Hendrey GR, Lewin KF, Nagy J (1993) Free air carbon-dioxide enrichment - development, progress, results. Vegetatio 104:17-31 Higgins TJ, Chrispeels MJ (2003) Plants in human nutrition and animal feed. In: Chrispeels MJ,

Sadava DE (eds) Plants, genes and crop biotechnology, 2nd edn. Jones and Bartlett, USA Hunsaker DJ, Kimball BA, Pinter PJ, Wall GW, LaMorte RL, Adamsen FJ, Leavitt SW, Thompson TL, Matthias AD, Brooks TJ (2000) CO2 enrichment and soil nitrogen effects on wheat evapotranspiration and water use efficiency. Agric Forest Meteorol 104:85-105

Jamieson PD, Berntsen J, Ewert F, Kimball BA, Olesen JE, Pinter PJ, Porter JR, Semenov MA (2000) Modelling CO2 effects on wheat with varying nitrogen supplies. Agric Ecosyst Environ 82:27-37 Karnosky DF, Werner H, Holopainen T, Percy K, Oksanen T, Oksanen E, Heerdt C, Fabian P, Nagy J, Heilman W, Cox R, Nelson N, Matyssek R (2007) Free-air exposure systems to scale up ozone research to mature trees. Plant Biol 9:181-190 Kartschall T, Grossman S, Pinter PJ, Garcia RL, Kimball BA, Wall GW, Hunsaker DJ, LaMorte RL (1995) A simulation of phenology, growth, carbon dioxide exchange and yields under ambient atmosphere and free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) Maricopa, Arizona, for wheat. J Biogeogr 22:611-622 Kim HY, Lieffering M, Miura S, Kobayashi K, Okada M (2001) Growth and nitrogen uptake of

CO2-enriched rice under field conditions. New Phytol 150:223-229 Kim H2Y, Lieffering M, Kobayashi K, Okada M, Mitchell MW, Gumpertz M (2003) Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment and nitrogen supply on the yield of temperate paddy rice crops. Field Crop Res 83:261-270

Kimball BA (1983) Carbon dioxide and agricultural yield - an assemblage and analysis of 430

prior observations. Agron J 75:779-788 Kimball BA (2006) The effects of free-air [CO2] enrichment of cotton, wheat, and sorghum. In: Nosberger J, Long SP, Norby RJ, Stitt M, Hendrey GR, Blum H (eds) Managed ecosystems and CO2, vol 187. Springer, Germany Kimball BA, Kobayashi K, Bindi M (2002) Responses of agricultural crops to free-air CO2 enrichment. Adv Agron 77:293-368 Kimball BA, Conley MM, Wang S, Lin X, Luo C, Morgan J, Smith D (2008) Infrared heater arrays for warming ecosystem field plots. Glob Change Biol 14:309-320 Kobayashi K, Okada M, Kim HY, Lieffering M, Miura S, Hasegawa T (2006) Paddy rice responses to free-air [CO2] enrichment. In: Nosberger J, Long SP, Norby RJ, Stitt M, Hendrey GR, Blum H (eds) Managed ecosystems and CO2, vol 187. Springer, Germany Leadley PW, Drake BG (1993) Open top chambers for exposing plant canopies to elevated CO2

concentration and for measuring net gas-exchange. Vegetatio 104:3-15 Leakey ADB (2009) Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and the future of C4 crops for food and fuel. Proc Royal Soc B 276:2333-2343 4

Leakey ADB, Bernacchi CJ, Dohleman FG, Ort DR, Long SP (2004) Will photosynthesis of maize (Zea mays) in the US Corn Belt increase in future [CO2] rich atmospheres? An analysis of diurnal courses of CO2 uptake under free-air concentration enrichment (FACE). Glob Change Biol 10:951-962 Leakey ADB, Bernacchi CJ, Ort DR, Long SP (2006) Long-term growth of soybean at elevated [CO2] does not cause acclimation of stomatal conductance under fully open-air conditions. Plant Cell Environ 29:1794-1800 Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, Rogers A, Long SP, Ort DR (2009a) Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen and water relations: six important lessons from FACE. J Exp Bot, in press. doi:10.1093/jxb/erp096 Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA, Bernard SM, Markelz RJC, Ort DR, Placella SA, Rogers A, Smith MD, Sudderth EA, Weston DJ, Wullschleger SD, Yuan S (2009b) Gene expression profiling - opening the block box of plant ecosystem responses to global change. Global Change Biol 15:1201-1213 Leakey ADB, Xu F, Gillespie KM, McGrath JM, Ainsworth EA, Ort DR (2009c) The genomic basis for stimulated respiration by plants growing under elevated carbon dioxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:3597-3602 Lewin KF, Hendrey GR, Kolber Z (1992) Brookhaven national laboratory free-air carbon-dioxide enrichment facility. Crit Rev Plant Sci 11:135-141 Loladze I (2002) Rising atmospheric CO2 and human nutrition: toward globally imbalanced plant stoichiometry? Trends Ecol Evol 17:457-461 Long SP (1999) Understanding the impacts of rising CO2: the contribution of environmental physiology. In: Press MC, Scholes JD, Barker MG (eds) Physiological Plant Ecology. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK Long SP, Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Ort DR (2004) Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide: plants face the future. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:591-628

Long SP, Ainsworth EA, Leakey ADB, Morgan PB (2005) Global food insecurity. Treatment of major food crops with elevated carbon dioxide or ozone under large-scale fully open-air conditions suggests recent models may have overestimated future yields. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci 360:2011-2020

Long SP, Ainsworth EA, Leakey ADB, Nosberger J, 0rt DR (2006) Food for thought: lower-than-

expected crop yield stimulation with rising C02 concentrations. Science 312:1918-1921 Manderscheid R, Weigel HJ (1997) Photosynthetic and growth responses of old and modern spring wheat cultivars to atmospheric C02 enrichment. Agric Ecosyst Environ 64:65-73 Manderscheid R, Bender J, Jager HJ, Weigel HJ (1995) Effects of season long C02 enrichment on cereals. 2. Nutrient concentrations and grain quality. Agric Ecosyst Environ 54:175-185 Mauzerall DL, Wang X (2001) Protecting agricultural crops from the effects of tropospheric ozone exposure: reconciling science and standard setting in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Annu Rev Energy Environ 26:237-268 McConnaughay KDM, Berntson GM, Bazzaz FA (1993) Limitations to C02-induced growth enhancement in pot studies. 0ecologia 94:550-557 McLeod AR, Long SP (1999) Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) in global change research: a review. Adv Ecol Res 28:1-56 Meehl GA, Stocker TF, Collins WD et al. (2007) Global climate projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M et al. (eds) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA Miglietta F, Magliulo V, Bindi M, Cerio L, Vaccari FP, Loduca V, Peressotti A (1998) Free air C02 enrichment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.): development, growth and yield. Glob Change Biol 4:163-172

Miglietta F, Peressotti A, Vaccari FP, Zaldei A, deAngelis P, Scarascia-Mugnozza G (2001) Freeair C02 enrichment (FACE) of a poplar plantation: the P0PFACE fumigation system. New Phytol 150:465-476

Mikkelsen TN, Beier C, Jonasson S, Holmstrup M, Schmidt IK, Ambus P, Pilegaard K, Michelsen A, Albert K, Andresen LC, Arndal MF, Bruun N, Christensen S, Danbaek S, Gundersen P, Jorgensen P, Linden LG, Kongstad J, Maraldo K, Prieme A, Riis-Nielsen T, Ro-Poulsen H, Stevnbak K, Selsted MB, Sorensen P, Larsen KS, Carter MS, Ibrom A, Martinussen T, Miglietta F, Sverdrup H (2008) Experimental design of multifactor climate change experiments with elevated C02, warming and drought: the CLIMAITE project. Funct Ecol 22:185-195

Mills G, Buse A, Gimeno B, Bermejo V, Holland M, Emberson L, Pleijel H (2007) A synthesis of A0T40-based response functions and critical levels of ozone for agricultural and horticultural crops. Atmos Environ 41:2630-2643 Morgan PB, Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2003) How does elevated ozone impact soybean? A metaanalysis of photosynthesis, growth and yield. Plant Cell Environ 26:1317-1328 Morgan PB, Bernacchi CJ, 0rt DR, Long SP (2004) An in vivo analysis of the effect of season-long open-air elevation of ozone to anticipated 2050 levels on photosynthesis in soybean. Plant Physiol 135:2348-2357

Morgan PB, Bollero GA, Nelson RL, Dohleman FG, Long SP (2005) Smaller than predicted increase in aboveground net primary production and yield of field-grown soybean under fully open-air [C02] elevation. Glob Change Biol 11:1856-1865 Morrison MJ, Voldeng HG, Cober ER (2000) Agronomic changes from 58 years of genetic improvement of short-season soybean cultivars in Canada. Agron J 92:780-784 Nowak RS, Ellsworth DS, Smith SD (2004) Functional responses of plants to elevated atmospheric C02 - do photosynthetic and productivity data from FACE experiments support early predictions? New Phytol 162:253-280 0ttman MJ, Kimball BA, Pinter PJ, Wall GW, Vanderlip RL, Leavitt SW, LaMorte RL, Matthias AD, Brooks TJ (2001) Elevated C02 increases sorghum biomass under drought conditions. New Phytol 150:261-273

Pang J, Zhu JG, Xie ZB, Liu G, Zhang YL, Chen GP, Zeng Q, Cheng L (2006) A new explanation of the N concentration decrease in tissues of rice (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to elevated atmospheric pCO2. Environ Exp Bot 57, 98-105 Parry M, Rosenzweig C, Iglesias A, Fischer G, Livermore M (1999) Climate change and world food security: a new assessment. Glob Environ Change 9:S51-S67 Parry ML, Rosenzweig C, Iglesias A, Livermore M, Fischer G (2004) Effects of climate change on global food production under SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Glob Environ Change 14:53-67

Parry M, Rosenzweig C, Livermore M (2005) Climate change, and risk global food supply of hunger. Phil Trans R Soc B 360:2125-2138 Peart RM, Jones JW, Curry RB, Boote K, Allen LH (1989) Impact of climate change on crop yield in the southeastern USA: a simulation study. In: Smith JB, Tirpak DA (eds.) The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States, vol. 1. EPA, Washington, DC Pinter PJ, Kimball BA, Garcia RL, Wall GW, Hunsaker DJ, LaMorte RL (1996) Free air CO2 enrichment: responses of cotton and wheat crops. In: Koch GW, Mooney HA (eds) Carbon dioxide and terrestrial ecosystems. Academic, San Diego Porter JR, Semenov MA (2005) Crop responses to climatic variation. Phil Trans R Soc B 360:2021-2035

Prather M, Gauss M, Berntsen T, Isaksen I, Sundet J, Bey I, Brasseur G, Dentener F, Derwent R, Stevenson D, Grenfell L, Hauglustaine D, Horowitz L, Jacob D, Mickley L, Lawrence M, von Kuhlmann R, Muller J-F, Pitari G, Rogers H, Johnson M, Pyle J, Law K, van Weele M, Wild O (2003) Fresh air in the 21st century. Geophys Res Lett 30:1100 Raupach MR, Marland G, Ciais P, Le Quere C, Canadell JG, Klepper G, Field CB (2007) Global and regional drivers of accelerating CO2 emissions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:10288-10293

Rogers HH, Bingham GE, Cure JD, Smith JM, Surano KA (1983) Responses of selected plant species to elevated carbon dioxide in the field. J Env Qual 12:569-574 Sasaki H, Hara T, Ito S, Miura S, Hoque MM, Lieffering M, Kim HY, Okada M, Kobayashi K (2005) Seasonal changes in canopy photosynthesis and respiration, and partitioning of photosynthate, in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown under free-air CO2 enrichment. Plant Cell Physiol 46:1704-1712 Seneweera SP, Conroy JP (1997) Growth, grain yield and quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in response to elevated CO2 and phosphorus nutrition (Reprinted from Plant nutrition for sustainable food production and environment, 1997). Soil Sci Plant Nutr 43:1131-1136 Seneweera SP, Conroy JP, Ishimaru K, Ghannoum O, Okada M, Lieffering M, Kim HY, Kobayashi K (2002) Changes in source-sink relations during development influence photosynthetic acclimation of rice to free air CO2 enrichment (FACE). Funct Plant Biol 29:945-953 Shimono H, Okada M, Yamakawa Y, Nakamura H, Kobayashi K, Hasegawa T (2007) Lodging in rice can be alleviated by atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Agric Ecosyst Environ 118:223-230 Siegenthaler U, Stocker TF, Monnin E, Luthi D, Schwander J, Stauffer B, Raynaud D, Barnola JM, Fischer H, Masson-Delmotte V, Jouzel J (2005) Stable carbon cycle-climate relationship during the late Pleistocene. Science 310:1313-1317 Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Alley RB, Berntsen R, Bindoff NL, Chen Z, Chidthaisong A, Gregory JM, Hegerl GC, Heimann M, Hewitson B, Hoskins BJ, Joos F, Jouzel J, Kattsov V, Lohmann U, Matsuno T, Molina M, Nicholls N, Overpeck J, Raga G, Ramaswamy V, Ren J, Rusticucci M, Somerville R, Stocker TF, Whetton P, Wood RA, Wratt D (2007) Technical Summary. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA Taub DR, Miller B, Allen H (2008) Effects of elevated CO2 on the protein concentration of food crops: a meta-analysis. Glob Change Biol 14:565-575 Tong D, Mathur R, Schere K, Kang D, Yu S (2007) The use of air quality forecasts to assess impacts of air pollution on crops: methodology and case study. Atmos Environ 41:8772-8784

Tubiello FN, Ewert F (2002) Simulating the effects of elevated CO2 on crops: approaches and applications for climate change. Eur J Agron 18:57-74 Tubiello FN, Rosenzweig C, Kimball BA, Pinter PJ, Wall GW, Hunsaker DJ, LaMorte RL, Garcia RL (1999) Testing CERES-wheat with free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiment data: CO2 and water interactions. Agron J 91:247-255 Tubiello FN, Amthor JS, Boote KJ, Donatelli M, Easterling W, Fischer G, Gifford RM, Howden M, Reilly J, Rosenzweig C (2007a) Crop response to elevated CO2 and world food supply: a comment on "Food for Thought." by Long et al., Science 312: 1918-1921, 2006. Eur J Agron 26:215-223

Tubiello FN, Soussana JF, Howden SM (2007b) Crop and pasture response to climate change.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:19686-19690 United Nations, Administrative Committee on Co-ordination, Sub-committee on N, International Food Policy Research I (2000) 4th report on the world nutrition situation: nutrition throughout the life cycle. United Nations, Administrative Committee on Coordination, Subcommittee on Nutrition (ACC/SCN). International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Geneva, Switzerland; Washington, DC Van Dingenen R, Dentener FJ, Raes F, Krol MC, Emberson L, Cofala J (2009) The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation. Atmos Env 43:604-618

Vingarzan R (2004) A review of surface ozone background levels and trends. Atmos Environ 38:3431-3442

Volz A, Kley D (1988) Evaluation of the Montsouris series of ozone measurements made in the

19th century. Nature 332:240-242 von Caemmerer S, Furbank RT (2003) The C4 pathway: an efficient CO2 pump. Photosynth Res 77:191-207

Wang X, Mauzerall DL (2004) Characterizing distributions of surface ozone and its impact on grain production in China, Japan and South Korea: 1990 and 2020. Atmos Environ 38:4383-4402

Weigel HJ, Pacholski A, Waloszczyk K, Fruhauf C, Manderscheid R, Anderson TH, Heinemeyer O, Kleikamp B, Helal M, Burkart S, Schrader S, Sticht C, Giesemann A (2006) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on barley, sugar beet and wheat in a rotation: examples from the Braunschweig carbon project. Landbauforschung Volkenrode 56:101-115 Whitehead D, Hogan KP, Rogers GND, Byers JN, Hunt JE, McSeveny TM, Hollinger DY, Dungan RJ, Earl WB, Bourke MP (1995) Performance of large open-top chambers for long-term field investigations of tree response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration. J Biogeogr 22:307-313

Yang LX, Huang JY, Yang HJ, Dong GC, Liu G, Zhu JG, Wang YL (2006) Seasonal changes in the effects of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) on dry matter production and distribution of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Field (Crop Res 98:12-19 Ziska LH, Morris CF, Goins EW (2004) Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of selected wheat varieties released since 1903 to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide: can yield sensitivity to carbon dioxide be a factor in wheat performance? Glob Change Biol 10:1810-1819

Part III

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment