Measuring Progress in Adaptation

Given the importance of climate adaptation to the future of agriculture, it is imperative that we improve our understanding of how and how fast management and technologies adaptations will proceed. In particular, understanding the pace and impact of autonomous adaptation will be necessary for identifying the scope and type of needed planned adaptations. The recent and ongoing changes in climate may offer some insight into what farmers are actually doing in response. However, how will we recognize adaptation if and when it is happening? Among the many changes sure to occur in agricultural management and technology, will we be able to distinguish those that qualify as adaptation? Put more simply, what will an "adapted" food production system look like?

Broadly speaking, an adapted world in 2050 will have some key characteristics to look for: widespread planting of new crop varieties; area expansion of crops and shifts in planting dates, particularly in temperate regions; expansion of irrigation and water harvesting; and effective institutions for anticipating and responding to droughts and local food production shortfalls. Realizing this adapted world, however, will require difficult decisions on the part of public and private sector agencies around the world with regard to how, where and when to invest. Further scientific research will be critical in informing this process, both to further reduce uncertainties surrounding likely impacts in the absence of adaptation, and to identify regions where producers and consumers will be unable to respond on their own and where investment could be most needed.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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