1. As the bulk of poor and hungry populations are in rural areas and have close ties to food production, their incomes could be significantly impacted by both local and global scale yield impacts. Many economic assessments to date have considered GDP growth as independent of agricultural impacts, but this is clearly not the case, particularly in the poorest of countries. Future work should more explicitly consider effects on income and resulting impacts on food security. Critical questions in this area will be the degree to which malnourishment remains concentrated in rural areas, the net position (buyers or sellers) of the poor for key crops, the percent of expenditures on food, and the wage impacts of changes in crop prices.
2. A related question is whether getting out of agriculture represents a viable adaptation strategy for food insecure populations. Clearly some degree of income diversification has been a useful strategy for coping with inter-annual variability. But will it be possible to create enough economic growth outside of agriculture-related industries to reduce the dependence of most people on agricultural productivity? Would governments be wise to promote investment in these other sectors over agriculture in areas that face the most severe impacts?
3. Finally, we lack basic knowledge of how climate change might interact with more traditional development strategies aimed at improving smallholder productivity and incomes. For instance, if adoption of fertilizer and improved agricultural technology is seen as central to improving rural livelihoods, and a primary explanation for current low adoption rates is farmer risk avoidance in the face of a variable climate, then will future changes in climate further inhibit technology adoption?
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Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.