Cultivar Characteristics

Cultivar characteristics usually are embodied in a set of parameters, sometimes termed "genetic coefficients", that are thought characteristic of the species. These can characterize differences in phenology through parameters for phase durations, response to photoperiod, and, if appropriate, vernalization requirements. Parameters may also be defined for seed growth characteristics, seed composition, relative leaf size, or other traits.

Cultivar parameters are estimated by adjusting the parameters iteratively to obtain good agreement between observed and simulated values from a calibration dataset. This process requires access to extensive sets of field data, and lack of such data often constrains calibration accuracy (Anothai et al. 2008a). Recent work has shown the potential for obtaining cultivar parameters with limited data sets that are collected in state-wide variety trials (Mavromatis et al. 2001, 2002; Guerra et al. 2008) as well as in plant breeding trials (Anothai et al. 2008b). Attempts to estimate parameters from genetic information also show promise (White and Hoogenboom 1996; Messina et al. 2006; White et al. 2008). Great uncertainty remains, however, on the potential for further genetic adaptation to climate change (Ainsworth et al. 2008) and how to represent the adaptations in models. Obvious targets would involve increased heat tolerance and responses of various processes to [CO2].

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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