Crop Responses to Climate and Weather Cross Section and Panel Models

Wolfram Schlenker

Abstract Crop choices vary by climate, e.g., Florida specializes in citrus crops while Iowa specializes in corn and soybeans. The advantage of a cross-sectional analysis is that it incorporates how farmers adapt to existing difference in average climate conditions across space. A potential downfall is omitted variable bias. A panel analysis can overcome omitted variable bias by including fixed effects to capture all additive time-invariant influences, yet does not account for the same set of adaptation possibilities.

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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