Contents

Part I

1 Introduction 3

David Lobell and Marshall Burke

2 Climate Effects on Food Security: An Overview 13

Marshall Burke and David Lobell

3 Climate Models and Their Projections of Future Changes 31

Claudia Tebaldi and Reto Knutti

Part II

4 Crop Response to Climate: Ecophysiological Models 59

Jeffrey W. White and Gerrit Hoogenboom

5 Crop Responses to Climate: Time-Series Models 85

David Lobell

6 Crop Responses to Climate and Weather:

Cross-Section and Panel Models 99

Wolfram Schlenker

7 Direct Effects of Rising Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Ozone on Crop Yields 109

Elizabeth A. Ainsworth and Justin M. McGrath

Part III

8 Food Security and Adaptation to Climate Change:

What Do We Know? 133

Marshall Burke and David Lobell

9 Breeding Strategies to Adapt Crops to a Changing Climate 155

Part IV

10 Global and Regional Assessments 177

David Lobell and Marshall Burke

11 Where Do We Go from Here? 193

David Lobell and Marshall Burke

Index 197

Part I

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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