Climate Models and Their Projections of Future Changes

Claudia Tebaldi and Reto Knutti

Abstract This chapter describes global climate models and their output. The current approaches for analyzing their simulations, characterizing the range of likely future outcomes, and making projections relevant for impact analysis are described, specifically referring to the latest assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We provide a summary of future projections of average temperature and precipitation changes at continental scales, together with a broad brush picture of the likely changes in indices of extremes, characterizing both temperature and precipitation events. An analysis of changes in growing season length is also presented as an example of climate model output analysis directly relevant to studies of climate change impacts on food security.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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