Chemical control

Chemical control is among the options available for limiting yield losses (Oerke, 2006). Intrinsic pest/pathogen characteristics (e.g. diapause, life cycle, generation time, minimum, maximum and optimum growth temperatures, and host interaction) and intrinsic ecosystem characteristics (e.g. monoculture and biodiversity) lead to changes in microorganism populations. An increase in pest infestation might lead to greater use of chemical pesticides to control them. It has been estimated that the use of fungicides for controlling late blight in potato will increase by 15-20% in the coming decades (Fry and Goodwin, 1997). Climate change could change the efficacy of crop protection because precipitation patterns and increased CO2 may affect the residual effect of active ingredients on the leaf or their uptake in the case of systemic compounds, respectively (Coakley et al., 1999). Pesticide use could also have detrimental effects on beneficial organisms, as in the case of the brown plant hopper (Nilaparvata lugens) on rice (Savary et al., 2006). The reduction in the number of authorized active ingredients on the market for ecological reasons could reduce chemical control options and lead to a situation that will require a better knowledge of the target populations and their resistance levels, the further development and application of integrated pest management (IPM) techniques, and the use of prediction systems in precision agriculture.

0 0

Post a comment