Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

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Temperature and plant development phenology and seasonality

Some plant species and some phases are more apparent than others. Hence the brilliant displays of cherry flowering at the Royal Court in the former Japanese capital of Kyoto or of peach flowering in Shanghai are very obvious and are associated with local festivals. Flowering of forsythia, for example, is much more obvious than that of beech trees. In Europe, religion and folklore may associate some plants with specific calendar dates for example, daffodil flowering with St David's Day (March 1), snowdrop flowering with Candlemas (February 2) and the Devil spitting on blackberries on the night of October 10. Flowering of other species is of considerable importance for tourism, such as of fruit trees in south-eastern Norway, of crocuses at Husum, Germany, and of tulips in the Netherlands. Given these facts, it is not surprising that the emphasis in traditional plant phenology is biased towards trees and towards plants with obvious flowers, and may have a different emphasis in different...

Highpressure treatments

For a number of foods, dehydration is an unsatisfactory way to preserve them. Many dried foods rehydrate slowly in boiling water, remaining in part tough and unappetising. Kozempel et al. (1989) described modified and improved dehydration that included a step they called 'explosion puffing'. A partially dried piece of apple, for example, is subjected briefly to high temperature and pressure, then released into the atmosphere, where it expands instantly, or explodes. The result is a lightweight, porous piece of apple that can undergo further drying more quickly than an unex-ploded one. Researchers found that apples, celery, carrots, and potatoes so processed will reconstitute in water quickly, fully and evenly. The technique was claimed to have many applications. Explosion-puffed blueberries (Sullivan et al., 1982) are suitable for inclusion in cereals and muffin mixes. Sliced mushrooms also can be explosion-puffed (Sullivan and Egoville, 1986), retaining their nutrients and delicate...

Origin and occurrence of NDMA in food drinks and cigarette smoke

In vitro experiments frequently use excessively high nitrite concentrations, making extrapolation to realistic physiological concentrations complicated. Investigation of the endogenous NDMA formation in vivo is particularly difficult due to its rapid metabolism. Furthermore, coingestion of foods rich in some antioxidants, such as strawberries, garlic, and green tea, significantly inhibit nitrosation under gastric conditions 56,57 . For example, human excretion of NDMA was 26 times lower following green tea ingestion. These factors make predicting endogenous formation of NDMA in humans difficult, and we will not address it further herein.

Ecological Sensitivity Of Woody Plants To Oceanic Conditions

Fig. 9.18 Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) in fruit. Cloudberries are responsive to rising temperatures and when ripe the fruits turn from red to yellow. The fruits ripen readily in Scandinavia and also in Labrador and Newfoundland where they are much prized. However, in Scotland's oceanic climate they do not fruit consistently and the berries only ripen beyond the red stage in rare favoured places. (Photo Professor R. M. Cormack.) Fig. 9.18 Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) in fruit. Cloudberries are responsive to rising temperatures and when ripe the fruits turn from red to yellow. The fruits ripen readily in Scandinavia and also in Labrador and Newfoundland where they are much prized. However, in Scotland's oceanic climate they do not fruit consistently and the berries only ripen beyond the red stage in rare favoured places. (Photo Professor R. M. Cormack.)

Box 175 Gender aspects of vulnerability and adaptive capacity

Among wine producers in British Columbia, Canada, Belliveau et al. (2006) demonstrate how adaptations to changing economic conditions can increase vulnerability to climate-related risks. Following the North American Free Trade Agreement, grape producers replaced low quality grape varieties with tender varieties to compete with higher-quality foreign imports, many of which have lower costs of production. This change enhanced the wine industry's domestic and international competitiveness, thereby reducing market risks, but simultaneously increased its susceptibility to winter injury. Thus the initial adaptation of switching varieties to increase economic competitiveness changed the nature of the system to make it more vulnerable to climatic stresses, to which it was previously less sensitive. To minimise frost risks, producers use overhead irrigation to wet the berries. The extra water from irrigation, however, can dilute the flavour in the grapes, reducing quality and decreasing market...

Residues generation and key reasons for coproduct recovery

The waste portion in the processing of some fruits and vegetables can be as large as 70 of the harvested material, as is the case of artichokes, passion fruits and some lettuce cultivars. In leaf vegetables (lettuce, spinach, Swiss chard, etc.) the external leaves are often removed as they are too hard and green and often have some defects (bruises, cuts, etc.). In other products, the edible portion is the flower (or the flower heart, as in the case of artichokes) and in this case the leaves, stems and some parts of the flower (the external and harder bracts) are discarded. In celery only the stems, especially the whiter ones, are selected, and the leaves and greener and thinner stems constitute waste product. In onions, the residues are external membranes and sometimes scales. The peels are frequently wastes, as in the case of most fruits, potatoes, tomatoes, etc. In other products the wastes are the fruit husks (banana, citrus, pomegranate, etc.) and shells (pistachio, almonds,...

Important sources of highvalue coproducts 1751 Fruit processing

Berries Different berries are processed as juices, and the press-cake constitutes a relevant by-product rich in phytochemicals. In blueberry and bilberry (and other Vaccinium species) the residues are especially rich in anthocyanins and flavonols, and also procyanidins in smaller amounts, this being an evident source for extract preparation. The extracts are already traded and have a place in the dietetic and pharmaceutical markets. Raspberries and strawberries are other berries that produce phenolic-rich residues after juice production (Aaby et al., 2005). These residues also contain flavonols, anthocyanins, procyanidins, and ellagic acid and ellagitannins, all of which are compounds with biological activities and a potential position in the nutraceutical and functional food market. Currants (Ribes species, red and black) also produce phenolic-rich residues that could be used in the same way.

Lifestyle and Subsistence

This influences all the branches of Enets economy hunting, fishing, and reindeer herding. In the Yenisey valley, Enets began to plant kitchen gardens (mostly potatoes) and to breed cattle. However they continue to hunt and fish, and their diet is almost exclusively meat and fish, which they prefer raw. They are gradually getting accustomed to eating bread. Their traditional diet also includes berries (mostly cloudberries Rubus chamaemorus) and wild onion and garlic (Allium ursinum), which are abundant in river valleys.

Food Use Of Wild Species

A Cree woman (Elizabeth Brien) picks cranberries near her A Cree woman (Elizabeth Brien) picks cranberries near her Broad food group categories of species used as food are sea mammals (seals, whales, walrus), land animals (e.g., caribou, moose, hare), birds (e.g., geese, ducks, grouse, gulls), fish (e.g., char, salmon, trout, cod, halibut), and shellfish (mussels, shrimp, clams, scallops) as well as plants (seaweed, berries, greens). Although the varieties of species used differ, the same families species of most Arctic wildlife animals and plants used for food are similar across the circumpolar Arctic. However, patterns of harvest, preparation, and use of wildlife vary from region to region. Sea mammals are used primarily by the circumpolar Inuit, who usually reside in sea coastal areas, particularly favorite items being rich in fat (blubber, muktuk, seal flippers, etc.). The Inuit are also known to prefer animal and fish tissue foods in the raw state however, most First

Early Agriculture And Civilization

Studies of remote and isolated tribes who have maintained Stone Age cultures into the modern era have shown them to be world-class botanists within their own habitat. Most can distinguish hundreds to thousands of plants, an expertise rare among modern-day specialists in botany. Their motivation for acquiring this knowledge is obvious they needed to gather food for survival, and they could not afford to make mistakes. Among edible items, it pays to know which are nutritious and good tasting, and which are not. It also pays to know which roots or nuts or berries or mushrooms are poisonous and which are not. I know a colleague who almost died when he made a wrong choice while foraging for mushrooms. These food choices made long ago were not trivial, and the Stone Age people of the Fertile Crescent region were certainly botanical experts.

Slow Going For A Few Million Years

Protohumans lived a wide-ranging hunting-gathering life, harvesting a wide variety of nuts and berries as they became seasonally available. Some of the shaped tools were probably used to dig out tubers and roots. Like modern chimps and some primitive people, they likely used sticks to extract termites from holes and eat them. The landscape also contained many other delicacies for those with the stomach for them bird eggs, field mice, and other fare.

Pandemics Co2 And Climate

Dead Lichen Halos Baffin Island

A little over a decade ago, we bought the property where we now live. The former owner had begun a small Christmas tree farm in the lower part of the meadow where our house stands. He kept most of the meadow in good trim by bush hogging, a method far cruder than cutting hay. The drive from a tractor spins a blunt blade that whacks down the grass by brute force, along with anything else that sprouts (saplings, shrubs, etc). Two summers had passed between the time when we bought the land and the point when house construction started, and in that short a time the meadow had begun to be invaded by forest. Young cedar trees sprouted along the meadow edges where berries fell from mature trees in nearby woods. Locust saplings sprouted well out into the meadow by a combination of root propagation and seed dispersal by pods. Several kinds of shrubs and cedars that had been whacked down but not killed by bush hogging also started to grow here and there. This meadow had no fences, or otherwise...

Recent developments in bog cultivation

An increase in the demand for fruit juices in a modern health-conscious world has caused a marked increase in the use of bogs for the cultivation of cranberries. The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is indigenous to northern America where it grows naturally in acid peat bogs and has a distribution that includes areas that are prone to frost at any time of the year. Commercial cranberry production started in the mid nineteenth century and is now a major industry occupying about 14 000 acres in Wisconsin alone. Cranberry production as a cultivated crop has until recently been mainly concentrated in northern America but is now being developed also in Finland and Poland. Because cranberries are sensitive to frost damage and natural winter protection by snow cover is often unpredictable and insufficient, the cranberry vines are grown in specially constructed cranberry bogs which are flooded in winter (Fig. 11.25). The water freezes to form an ice blanket, which prevents drying of...

Council Of Athapaskan Tribal Governments

The tribal governments on the Council consist of Gwich'in and Koyukon tribes. The Arctic, Beaver, Birch Creek, Canyon, Chalkyitsik, Circle, Fort Yukon, Rampart, Stevens, and Venetie comprise this tribal consortium. They inhabit ten remote villages in the Yukon Flats, ranging from populations as low as ten residents in Canyon, to 600 in Fort Yukon. The tribes still maintain a predominantly traditional subsistence lifestyle. Traditional foods such as moose and caribou, ducks and geese, as well as berries and other food plants make up the majority of the diet. The tribes' activities and livelihood depend upon the seasonal changes and landscape. Since there is no road access to the villages, the river system provides the primary means of transportation in the summer months, while travel by snow machine is predominant in the winter months.

Ecological Interactions

Symbiotic interactions can be thought of as beneficial to one or the other of the partners or, in the case of mutualism, to both partners. Trophic interactions include predation and herbivory, parasitism, and pathogenicity (ability to cause disease). In all these, the prey or host suffers while the predator, parasite, or pathogen benefits. Among vertebrates, the Arctic supports such well-known predators as marine mammals, polar bears, wolves, foxes, weasels, owls, falcons, gulls and terns, shorebirds, perching birds, and most fish. Predators among the arthropods include spiders, many insects, some aquatic crustacea, and many marine invertebrata. Not all are exclusively predatory foxes eat berries, perching birds consume seeds, and some small insects eat yet smaller invertebrates and spores. Herbivores eat plants or plant parts and may specialize by feeding in particular ways. The large herbivores (caribou and muskoxen) graze herbivorous insects range...

Fungi in Polar Regions

So far, fungi have been reported primarily in connection with sub-Arctic vegetation and soil in polar regions. Mainly basidiomycetous yeasts were isolated from berries, flowers, vegetation of the littoral zone, soils, forest trees, grasses Babjeva and Reshetova, 1998 and Antarctic mosses Tosil et al., 2002 . Recently, fungi belonging to the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, many of them new, were discovered in abundance below snow-covered tundra Pennisi, 2003 Schadt et al., 2003 . Although much of the water in tundra regions for most of the year is not biologically available, the peak in fungal activity was detected during winter, while in spring and summer bacteria prevailed Hodkinson et al., 1999 Schadt et al., 2003 .

Is The Stomach A Natural Extreme Envirnoment

Too much lime, however, is harmful and an alkaline soil can be as bad for plants as an acidic soil. Most plants grow best at a neutral pH (around pH 7). Some, however, grow naturally in soils that are slightly acid (peats and heaths) and should not be limed since the plants prefer to grow at a pH which is lower than neutral (these plants include rhododendrons, blueberries and huckleberries). Some soils are naturally alkaline (because they contain a high proportion of calcium and other salts) and the plants that grow in them tolerate a pH which is higher than neutral.

Host Range and Effects

Effective in declining the population of R. ferrugineus under both laboratory and field conditions. However, a higher concentration of H. indicus was required for field application. Khan et al. (2007) tested the pathogenicity of S. masoodi against final instars of six insect pests, i.e. G. mellonella, Pp. xylostella, Pieres brassicae, Corcyra cephalonica, Helicoverpa armigera and A. proxima. Six concentrations of the nematode were used, i.e. 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 infective juveniles per larvae. The nematode was found to be pathogenic to all the six insects with a considerable degree of variability in pathogenicity. Koppenhofer et al. (2008) conducted a series of laboratory and green house experiments to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of S. scarabaei, H. bacteriophora and H. zealandica for the control of second and third instar of cranberry white grub, Phyllophaga georgiana in cranberries. The result indicated that S. scarabaei was the most effective species causing...

Natural dyes from food processing wastes representative examples

The extract quality of selected examples is discussed in Section 19.5.1, sources presented in more detail are onion peels (19.5.2), nuts (19.5.3), berries (19.5.4), grape pomace (19.5.5) and tea residues (19.5.6). Table 19.7 Berries and grapes results of screening for natural dyes, selected colour and fastness properties and assessment of properties as pass fail Table 19.7 Berries and grapes results of screening for natural dyes, selected colour and fastness properties and assessment of properties as pass fail Berries Berries Berries Berries Berries Berries Berries Berries Berries Berries Berries Raspberries 19.5.4 Anthocyanin dyes - berries Berries anthocyanidins (see Fig. 19.6). The glycosidic group increases solubility in water. Depending on the position and number of glycosidic groups, shades vary from orange-red to blue. A mixture of anthocyanin compounds can be extracted from ripe berries, however cultivation of berries exclusively for dyestuff production is prohibited by the...

From Tree Shrews To Primates

At first blush, bipedalism just does not make sense. For our early ancestors, it would have been slower than walking on all fours, while requiring the same amount of energy. Several theories have been suggested to explain bipedalism and upright gait. Anthropologists Henry McHenry and Peter Rodman, for example, champion the idea that climate variation was part of the picture after all. When Africa dried out, they argue, the change left patches of forest widely spaced between open savannah. The first hominids lived mostly in these forest refuges but could not find enough food in any one place. Learning to walk on two legs helped them travel long distances overground to the next woodsy patch.14 Paleontologist Maeve Leakey, a member of the world's most famous fossil-hunting family, suspects the change in climate rewarded bipedalism, since a drier climate made for more grassland. Our ancestors, she argues, spent much of their time not in dense forests or on the savannah but in an...

From The Past Into The Distant Future

Scandinavia Ice Sheet 8000

Until 8,000 years ago, nature was in control. Even though our remote prehuman precursors had been present on Earth for several million years, nature alone drove climate change. Even when our fully human ancestors appeared sometime after 150,000 years ago, our impact on the global landscape was still trivial. People used firesticks to burn grasslands or forested areas in order to drive game or provide open areas to attract game and permit the growth of berries and other natural sources of food. Some of these early cultures may have pushed small branches into moist soils in wet tropical regions where trees bearing fruit or nuts would naturally sprout.

Fruit and vegetable processing or preservation

In order to preserve them and increase their shelf life, fruits and vegetables are usually canned, frozen or dried. These processes generate around 6 million tonnes of solid waste every year and large quantities of wastewater (3.5-8.5 m3 per tonne of raw material) are also necessary because of specific hygiene and legal constraints. The proportion of waste varies depending on the fruit or vegetable, ranging from 1 of raw material for cranberries to 20-30 for broccoli or carrot. Waste consists essentially of stems, leaves and stalks, which are more often spread on land, composted or used as animal feed. Some vegetable peels have been shown to contain valuable phenolics and bioactive components (Rodriguez et al., 2004 Suutarinen et al., 2004). Fruit stones and kernels are used for natural oils in the food industry, cosmetics or pharmaceuticals. Some leafy by-products (from

Demographic Factors

An analysis of the phenetic and crossing relationships in over 400 genera of plants and animals has indicated that although discrete phenotypic clusters exist in most genera (> 80 ), the correspondence of taxonomic species to these clusters is poor (< 60 ). The lack of congruence as perceived by botanists, it is argued, may be caused by polyploidy, asexual reproduction and over differentiation by tax-onomists, but not by contemporary hybridization (Rieseberg et al., 2006). This same study pointed out that crossability data indicated that 70 of taxonomic species and 75 of phenotypic clusters in plants correspond to reproductively independent lineages (as measured by post-mating isolation), and thus represent biologically real entities. It can be argued that, contrary to conventional wisdom, when a wide spectrum of plant species is considered and not just the celebrated horror stories of plants such as dandelions, plants are more likely than animal...


Rich soil accounts for high crop production (corn and soybeans) the northern two-thirds of the state lie in the Corn Belt. Fruit crops, especially peaches, apples, and strawberries, are raised in the southern hill lands. Industrial and urban centers exist along the Mississippi River. Coal-burning and nuclear power plants generate electricity in Illinois. Based on energy consumption data from the Energy Information Administration's State Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates (SEDS) released June 1, 2007, Illinois's total carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion in million metric tons carbon dioxide for 2004 were 235.97, made up of contributions from commercial, 12.15 industrial, 38.53 residential, 24.71 transportation, 68.58 and electric power, 92.


Tobacco is grown in the southern region. Much of the state grows corn, especially the Piedmont region. Soybeans are grown in the eastern region along with peaches, strawberries, and melons. Maryland's economy also relies on livestock and poultry, greenhouse products, and dairies. Manufacturing includes chemi-


Massachusetts's agriculture includes diverse crops of cranberries, apples, corn, potatoes, and dairy products. Massachusetts has extensive commercial fishing, both in coastal waters and in the colder currents of more distant fishing banks, including the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and Georges Bank off Cape Cod. The commercial fishing industry will suffer with rising ocean temperatures, with a northward habitat shift of many fish and shellfish species like cod and lobster. Under either high-end or low-end emissions scenarios, cod are expected to disappear from the region's waters south of Cape Cod during this century, and lobster populations south of Cape Cod are expected to dwindle by mid-century. With higher emissions, the fishing grounds of Georges Bank will likely lose their cod stocks. Impact is more severe under the higher-emissions scenario, with heat stress in cows decreasing milk production and the climate no longer suitable for cranberries and some apple varieties. Weeds and...

Part four

Now, at Tin Creek we disembarked onto tundra lit with the feathery heads of cotton grass, and Fannie and her niece Brenda set out with berry buckets. Weyiouanna and I started uphill so I could get a better view and sense of the country that might be Shishmaref's new home. The tundra growth was wound tight to the ground and into hilly tussocks, intertwined with grasses, willows, Labrador tea, lichens, gemlike blueberries we paused to pick and eat, and an occasional single gold aqpik berry. Despite the advancing season, the landscape was still green, with leaves just beginning to suggest the yellows and reds of autumn. We staggered over the dry, prickly tussocks as they twisted and toppled under our feet, and I thought of what a biologist in Nome had told me that the tundra surface was drier than usual, not for a lack of rain but because, as the active layer of ground deepened over thawing permafrost, there was more soil for the moisture to soak into.

Specifically Finnish

Finnish society is an egalitarian society. On the basis of a 1995 OECD study, it has been said that Finland has the world's most even income distribution. An average family of four with two providers paid 38 tax in 1998 and spent an average of 2 h per day in front of the TV. Slightly less time is spent in the sauna, but still virtually every Finnish home has a sauna and most Finns regularly enjoy sauna at least once or twice a week. Vappu on the first of May heralds the arrival of spring and is celebrated with marches, congregations, beer, vodka, and of course the wearing of the white high-school graduation caps (ylioppilas). Midsummer is celebrated with a sauna, a meal of new potatoes and other fresh produce, sausages, home-brewed beer, and a bonfire outside. In July, the berry-collecting season starts first cloudberries, then blueberries, later raspberries and currants, and finally in September lingonberry, cranberry, and crowberry. Mushrooms are collected in large quantities and...

Use of Plants

The underground stems and roots of some species are gathered and eaten (Eskimo potato, Hedysarum boreale Alpine bistort, Persicaria vivipara). The fresh leaves of mountain sorrel (Oxyria digyna) are deliciously fresh and today are often eaten in salads. The flowers of the purple saxifrage, one of the first species to bloom, are relished after a winter without fresh food. The heath family has several species that produce edible berries that are gathered when they are ripe and were traditionally preserved in seal oil, or with seal meat for the winter. These include different species of bear berries (Arctostaphylos sp.), mountain cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), bilberry (Vaccinium uligi-nosum), crowberry, or curlewberry (Empetrum nigrum).

Wisconsin 1095

Wisconsin is a Corn Belt state, and corn is its major crop. Other leading crops are soybeans, hay, sweet corn, potatoes, cranberries, and oats. Major industries include dairy products, corn, hay, and beef. Wisconsin takes advantage of Lake Michigan for commercial fishing, though it is only a small industry in the state. Important species are whitefish, lake trout, perch, chub, ale-wife, and carp. Forestry is a minor industry, with most hardwood cut going to plywood and veneer manufac-

Aviris 158

Air temperature and 48 aphids in 130-131 chilling injuries 53 heat stress injuries 52-53 insect pests 134-135 soil water management 89 cowpea, chilling injury 53 cranberries, frost control 171-172 CRAS-ALEX 171 Crop Moisture Index 105, 106t crop pests and diseases. See pests and diseases

Flora and Fauna

Finland's flora does not significantly differ from that of other northern European countries and contains a large number of grasses, flowers, and berries. Perhaps most remarkable are the great variety of lichens in northern Finland and some of the wetland species like mosses, ferns, sedges, and other plants characteristic of bogs and mires (e.g., insectivorous Drosera and Utricularia species). In late summer and early autumn, a great multitude of mushrooms and toadstools appear in Finnish fields and forests. Marine brown algae occur only around the southern and southwestern shores of Finland. The brackish waters of Finland's seacoast are rich in salmon, trout, smelt, flounder, Baltic Sea herring, and cod. The viviparous eelpout Zoarces viviparus and sea sticklebacks ought to be mentioned as well, but economically they play no role. Sturgeons, which used to be present, are now virtually extinct, but the ringed seal (Phoca hispida) of the Baltic Sea is said to be still common...

Empetrum Heaths

The juicy black berries of Empetrum persist on the branches all winter and are edible and relished by birds and mammals. They are also a favored food source for the Inuit. Although the taste is somewhat insipid, it tends to improve upon freezing. In former times, the berries of Empetrum were preserved in seal oil by some Inuit groups and stored for the winter months. Medicinal uses by native people include making a tea from the boiled plant to treat illnesses such as digestive problems and tuberculosis. Empetrum is known to have chemical substances in the leaves, which inhibit germination and growth of other competing plants. They also contain toxins that render the leaves of crowberry plants unpalatable for herbivores such as caribou. Crowberry has been broadly successful at naturally colonizing borrow pits in tundra regions of Northwest Canada and may be of use in managed reclamation projects.

Mountain of Sorrow

Baldwin's hikes in the region took him through open country in which thimbleberries abounded, whose fruit, Baldwin surmised, was a principal food of the 'alalaa. Some trees with berries were present, notably kolea . . . which was common, and 'olapa . . . less common. At least four crows flew around overhead at 8 a.m. by twos and threes calling frequently, he wrote. The trail continued upward and westward to the 'tank' hill (4300 ft.) and emerged into dry koa . . . forest suddenly here and to the northeast there was less thimbleberry, and the crows were lacking.


Bacteria are categorized into three general groups based on their physical form or shape (although almost every variation has been found see Table 8.2). The simplest form is the sphere. Spherical-shaped bacteria are called cocci (berries). They are not necessarily perfectly round but may be somewhat elongated, flattened on one side, or oval. Rod-shaped bacteria are called bacilli. Spiral-shaped bacteria (spirilla) have one or more twists and are never straight (see Figure 8.4). Such formations are usually characteristic of a particular genus or species. Within these three groups are many different arrangements. Some exist as single cells others as pairs, as packets of four or eight, as chains, or as clumps.