Notes To Chapter

1. Brohan et al. (2006) provide a detailed description of the data used to produce the HadCRUT3 data set, one of the most widely used records of temperature of the past 150 years. Another widely used temperature record has been constructed by NASA at their Goddard Institute for Space Studies laboratory, and these data were used to construct figure 7.1. The stations that NASA uses overlap with those used to construct the HadCRUT record, but the methods differ in how they interpolate the temperature over regions with few records. The resulting two temperature records are similar but not identical.

3. Accounting for errors caused by orbital decay has been particularly troublesome, and early analyses of the temperatures that did not properly take it into account did not show a temperature trend that agreed with the surface measurements. When this and other calibration issues are properly accounted for, the temperature trends from satellites agree well with those of the surface measurements.

4. The original "hockey stick" calculation was presented by Mann et al. (1998) and featured prominently in IPCC's third assessment report. For further criticism, discussion, and analysis of the calculations, see, for example, Mclntyre & McKitrick (2005), Huybers (2005), Wahl & Ammann (2007), and vonStorch et al. (2009). The IPCC is an intergovernmental review body (see glossary).

5. The measurements of CO2 by C. D. Keeling and colleagues are described in Keeling et al. (2001).

6. Indermuhle et al. (1999) provide one historical record. Estimates vary slightly, depending on the ice core and time period analyzed.

7. These data are based on University of East AngliaI U.K. Met Office and NASAIGISS analyses of global temperature. There are slight differences in the temperatures of individual years in the two analyses, but the decadal figures are almost the same.

8. See Lean & Rind (1998) and Solomon et al. (2007) for more discussion about the solar cycle and its effect on climate.

9. For further discussion of this idea, see Archer (2010).

10. The estimates of the climate sensitivity given in this chapter are based on Meehl et al. (2007) and Padilla et al. (2011).

11. An intercomparison of various climate models is described by Stouffer et al. (2006).

12. The IPCC view, giving a range of sea-level increases from about 20 cm to 60 cm in the coming century, is described in Meehl et al. (2007). The possibility that this is an underestimate is discussed by, for example, Rahmstorf (2010).

13. See also comiso et al. (2008) and references therein.

Further Reading

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