Plant materials can sometimes be obtained locally by cleaning drainage ditches. It is also possible to develop an onsite nursery at the wetland construction site, if the lead time is sufficient, to grow plant sprigs or seedlings from seed and transplant these to the wetland cells. A large and expanding number of commercial nurseries can supply a large variety of plant species for these wetland systems. The majority of the systems surveyed were planted with commercial nursery stock. Small systems are typically planted by hand, but large systems can use mechanical planters, and nursery-grown sprigs or plant seedlings are advantageous for this purpose. Hydroseeding has been attempted but has not been successful to date, although spreading of soil that was laden with bulrush and cattail seed was successful at Sacramento County, California. Cost data for plants and planting from the 1997 USEPA survey sites ranged from $1860/ac for Gustine to $1800/ac for West Jackson County (WEF, 2001).
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