Total Suspended Solids TSS Removal in Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands

Percent

TSS Influent TSS Effluent Removal

Location

Areata, California

Benton, Kentucky

Cannon Beaeh, Oregon

Cle Elum, Washington

Ft. Deposit, Alabama

Gustine, California

Iselin, Pennsylvania

Listowel, Ontario, Canada

Ouray, Colorado

West Jaekson County, Mississippi

Sacramento County, California

57.4

45.2

91.2

86 40.4

10.7

12.6

14 14.1

53 Gearheart et al. (1989)

81 USEPA (1993a)

82 USEPA (1993a)

86 USEPA (1993a) 70 Crites (1996)

93 Herskowitz et al. (1987)

84 Andrews (1996)

65 USEPA (1993a)

23-29a Nolte Associates (1999)

a Effluent collection via surface overflow weir from open water zone contributed to floating solids in the effluent.

detention time, and the available organic matter. Because the water column is nearly anoxic in many wetlands treating municipal wastewater, the reduction of nitrate will occur within a few days. Nitrogen and ammonia removal data are presented in Table 6.3.

TABLE 6.3

Ammonia and Total Nitrogen Removal in Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands

Type of

Ammonia Influent

Ammonia Effluent

Total Nitrogen Influent a USEPA (1999). b Nolte Associates (1999). c City of Salem, Oregon (2003)

Total Nitrogen Effluent

TABLE 6.3

Ammonia and Total Nitrogen Removal in Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands

Type of

Ammonia Influent

Ammonia Effluent

Total Nitrogen Influent

Total Nitrogen Effluent

Location

Wastewater

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

Areata, California

Oxidation pond

12.B

10

11.6

Beaumont, Texas'

Secondary

12

2

Iselin, Pennsylvania

Oxidation pond

30

13

Jaekson Bottoms, Oregon

Secondary

9.9

3.1

Listowel, Ontario

Primary

B.6

6.1

19.1

B.9

Pembroke, Kentucky

Secondary

13.B

3.35

Sacramento County, Californiab

Secondary

14.9

9.1

16.9

11.0

Salem, Oregone

Secondary

12.9

4.7

a USEPA (1999). b Nolte Associates (1999). c City of Salem, Oregon (2003)

Source: Adapted from Crites, R.W. and Tchobanoglous, G., Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1998.

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