Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Natural Waste Treatment Systems: An Overview 1

1.1 Natural Treatment Processes 1

1.1.1 Background 1

1.1.2 Wastewater Treatment Concepts and Performance Expectations 2

1.1.2.1 Aquatic Treatment Units 2

1.1.2.2 Wetland Treatment Units 5

1.1.2.3 Terrestrial Treatment Methods 5

1.1.2.4 Sludge Management Concepts 8

1.1.2.5 Costs and Energy 8

1.2 Project Development 9

References 10

Chapter 2 Planning, Feasibility Assessment, and Site Selection 11

2.1 Concept Evaluation 11

2.1.1 Information Needs and Sources 12

2.1.2 Land Area Required 14

2.1.2.1 Treatment Ponds 14

2.1.2.2 Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands 15

2.1.2.3 Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands 16

2.1.2.4 Overland Flow Systems 16

2.1.2.5 Slow-Rate Systems 17

2.1.2.6 Soil Aquifer Treatment Systems 18

2.1.2.7 Land Area Comparison 18

2.1.2.8 Biosolids Systems 19

2.2 Site Identification 19

2.2.1 Site Screening Procedure 20

2.2.2 Climate 26

2.2.3 Flood Hazard 26

2.2.4 Water Rights 27

2.3 Site Evaluation 28

2.3.1 Soils Investigation 28

2.3.1.1 Soil Texture and Structure 30

2.3.1.2 Soil Chemistry 30

2.3.2 Infiltration and Permeability 33

2.3.2.1 Saturated Permeability 33

2.3.2.2 Infiltration Capacity 35

2.3.2.3 Porosity 35

2.3.2.4 Specific Yield and Specific Retention 35

2.3.2.5 Field Tests for Infiltration Rate 36

2.3.3 Subsurface Permeability and Groundwater Flow 39

2.3.3.1 Buffer Zones 40

2.4 Site and Process Selection 41

References 41

Chapter 3 Basic Process Responses and Interactions 43

3.1 Water Management 43

3.1.1 Fundamental Relationships 43

3.1.1.1 Permeability 44

3.1.1.2 Groundwater Flow Velocity 45

3.1.1.3 Aquifer Transmissivity 45

3.1.1.4 Dispersion 45

3.1.1.5 Retardation 46

3.1.2 Movement of Pollutants 47

3.1.3 Groundwater Mounding 51

3.1.4 Underdrainage 58

3.2 Biodegradable Organics 60

3.2.1 Removal of BOD 60

3.2.2 Removal of Suspended Solids 61

3.3 Organic Priority Pollutants 62

3.3.1 Removal Methods 62

3.3.1.1 Volatilization 62

3.3.1.2 Adsorption 65

3.3.2 Removal Performance 69

3.3.3 Travel Time in Soils 70

3.4 Pathogens 71

3.4.1 Aquatic Systems 71

3.4.1.2 Bacteria and Virus Removal 71

3.4.2 Wetland Systems 73

3.4.3 Land Treatment Systems 75

3.4.3.1 Ground Surface Aspects 75

3.4.3.2 Groundwater Contamination 75

3.4.4 Sludge Systems 76

3.4.5 Aerosols 77

3.5 Metals 81

3.5.1 Aquatic Systems 82

3.5.2 Wetland Systems 84

3.5.3 Land Treatment Systems 84

3.6 Nutrients 86

3.6.1 Nitrogen 86

3.6.1.1 Pond Systems 87

3.6.1.2 Aquatic Systems 87

3.6.1.3 Wetland Systems 88

3.6.1.4 Land Treatment Systems 88

3.6.2 Phosphorus 88

3.6.3 Potassium and Other Micronutrients 90

3.6.3.2 Sulfur 91

3.6.3.3 Sodium 91

References 92

Chapter 4 Design of Wastewater Pond Systems 95

4.1 Introduction 95

4.1.1 Trends 95

4.2 Facultative Ponds 96

4.2.1 Areal Loading Rate Method 97

4.2.2 Gloyna Method 99

4.2.3 Complete-Mix Model 101

4.2.4 Plug-Flow Model 102

4.2.5 Wehner-Wilhelm Equation 103

4.2.6 Comparison of Facultative Pond Design Models 107

4.3 Partial-Mix Aerated Ponds 109

4.3.1 Partial-Mix Design Model 110

4.3.1.1 Selection of Reaction Rate Constants 111

4.3.1.2 Influence of Number of Cells 111

4.3.1.3 Temperature Effects 112

4.3.2 Pond Configuration 112

4.3.3 Mixing and Aeration 113

4.4 Complete-Mix Aerated Pond Systems 123

4.4.1 Design Equations 124

4.4.1.1 Selection of Reaction Rate Constants 125

4.4.1.2 Influence of Number of Cells 125

4.4.1.3 Temperature Effects 126

4.4.2 Pond Configuration 126

4.4.3 Mixing and Aeration 127

4.5 Anaerobic Ponds 133

4.5.1 Introduction 133

4.5.2 Design 136

4.6 Controlled Discharge Pond System 140

4.7 Complete Retention Pond System 140

4.8 Hydrograph Controlled Release 140

4.9 High-Performance Aerated Pond Systems (Rich Design) 141

4.9.1 Performance Data 142

4.10 Proprietary Systems 144

4.10.1 Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems® 144

4.10.1.1 Hotchkiss, Colorado 146

4.10.1.2 Dove Creek, Colorado 147

4.10.2 BIOLAC® Process (Activated Sludge in Earthen Ponds) 149

4.10.2.1 BIOLAC® Processes 154

4.10.2.1.1 BIOLAC-R System 155

4.10.2.1.2 BIOLAC-L System 156

4.10.2.1.3 Wave-Oxidation© Modification 157

4.10.2.1.4 Other Applications 157

4.10.2.2 Unit Operations 159

4.10.2.2.1 Aeration Chains and Diffuser Assemblies 159

4.10.2.2.2 Blowers and Air Manifold 159

4.10.2.2.3 Clarification and Solids Handling 159

4.10.2.2.4 BIOLAC-L Settling Basin 160

4.10.2.3 Performance Data 160

4.10.2.4 Operational Problems 164

4.10.3 LEMNA Systems 164

4.10.3.1 Lemna Duckweed System 164

4.10.3.2 Performance Data 165

4.10.3.3 LemTec™ Biological Treatment Process 165

4.10.4 Las International, Ltd 171

4.10.5 Praxair, Inc 172

4.10.6 Ultrafiltration Membrane Filtration 172

4.11 Nitrogen Removal in Lagoons 172

4.11.1 Introduction 172

4.11.2 Facultative Systems 173

4.11.2.1 Theoretical Considerations 176

4.11.2.2 Design Models 178

4.11.2.3 Applications 181

4.11.2.4 Summary 181

4.11.3 Aerated Lagoons 182

4.11.3.1 Comparison of Equations 182

4.11.3.2 Summary 187

4.11.4 Pump Systems, Inc., Batch Study 188

4.11.5 Commercial Products 189

4.11.5.1 Add Solids Recycle 189

4.11.5.2 Convert to Sequencing Batch Reactor Operation 192

4.11.5.3 Install Biomass Carrier Elements 192

4.11.5.4 Commercial Lagoon Nitrification Systems 193

4.11.5.4.3 Ashbrook SBR 194

4.11.5.4.4 AquaMat® Process 194

4.11.5.5 Other Process Notes 196

4.11.5.6 Ultrafiltration Membrane Filtration 198

4.11.5.7 BIOLAC® Process (Parkson Corporation) 198

4.12 Modified High-Performance Aerated Pond Systems for Nitrification and Denitrification 199

4.13 Nitrogen Removal in Ponds Coupled with Wetlands and Gravel Bed Nitrification Filters 199

4.14 Control of Algae and Design of Settling Basins 200

4.15 Hydraulic Control of Ponds 200

4.16 Removal of Phosphorus 201

4.16.1 Batch Chemical Treatment 202

4.16.2 Continuous-Overflow Chemical Treatment 202

References 203

Chapter 5 Pond Modifications for Polishing Effluents 211

5.1 Solids Removal Methods 211

5.1.1 Introduction 211

5.1.2 Intermittent Sand Filtration 211

5.1.2.1 Summary of Performance 214

5.1.2.2 Operating Periods 215

5.1.2.3 Maintenance Requirements 215

5.1.2.4 Hydraulic Loading Rates 215

5.1.3.5 Design of Intermittent Sand Filters 215

5.1.3 Rock Filters 227

5.1.3.1 Performance of Rock Filters 228

5.1.3.2 Design of Rock Filters 230

5.1.4 Normal Granular Media Filtration 230

5.1.5 Coagulation-Flocculation 238

5.1.6 Dissolved-Air Flotation 239

5.2 Modifications and Additions to Typical Designs 243

5.2.1 Controlled Discharge 243

5.2.2 Hydrograph Controlled Release 245

5.2.3 Complete Retention Ponds 246

5.2.4 Autoflocculation and Phase Isolation 247

5.2.5 Baffles and Attached Growth 247

5.2.6 Land Application 248

5.2.7 Macrophyte and Animal Systems 248

5.2.7.1 Floating Plants 248

5.2.7.2 Submerged Plants 248

5.2.7.3 Daphnia and Brine Shrimp 248

5.2.8 Control of Algae Growth by Shading and Barley Straw 249

5.2.8.2 Fabric Structures 249

5.2.8.3 Barley Straw 249

5.2.8.4 Lemna Systems 250

5.3 Performance Comparisons with Other Removal Methods 250

References 252

Chapter 6 Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands 259

6.1 Process Description 259

6.2 Wetland Components 261

6.2.1 Types of Plants 261

6.2.2 Emergent Species 262

6.2.2.1 Cattail 262

6.2.2.2 Bulrush 262

6.2.2.3 Reeds 263

6.2.2.4 Rushes 263

6.2.2.5 Sedges 263

6.2.3 Submerged Species 264

6.2.4 Floating Species 264

6.2.5 Evapotranspiration Losses 264

6.2.6 Oxygen Transfer 265

6.2.7 Plant Diversity 266

6.2.8 Plant Functions 268

6.2.9 Soils 267

6.2.10 Organisms 268

6.3 Performance Expectations 268

6.3.1 BOD Removal 269

6.3.2 Suspended Solids Removal 269

6.3.3 Nitrogen Removal 269

6.3.4 Phosphorus Removal 272

6.3.5 Metals Removal 273

6.3.6 Temperature Reduction 274

6.3.7 Trace Organics Removal 274

6.3.8 Pathogen Removal 275

6.3.9 Background Concentrations 277

6.4 Potential Applications 278

6.4.1 Municipal Wastewaters 278

6.4.2 Commercial and Industrial Wastewaters 281

6.4.3 Stormwater Runoff 282

6.4.4 Combined Sewer Overflow 283

6.4.5 Agricultural Runoff 286

6.4.6 Livestock Wastewaters 288

6.4.7 Food Processing Wastewater 289

6.4.8 Landfill Leachates 289

6.4.9 Mine Drainage 291

6.5 Planning and Design 296

6.5.1 Site Evaluation 297

6.5.2 Preapplication Treatment 297

6.5.3 General Design Procedures 297

6.6 Hydraulic Design Procedures 299

6.7 Thermal Aspects 302

6.7.1 Case 1. Free Water Surface Wetland Prior to Ice Formation 303

6.7.2 Case 2. Flow Under an Ice Cover 304

6.7.3 Case 3. Free Water Surface Wetland and Thickness of Ice Formation 305

6.7.4 Summary 307

6.8 Design Models and Effluent Quality Prediction 308

6.8.1 Volumetric Model 308

6.8.1.1 Advantages 308

6.8.1.2 Limitations 309

6.8.2 Areal Loading Model 309

6.8.2.1 Advantages 309

6.8.2.2 Limitations 309

6.8.3 Effluent Quality Prediction 309

6.8.4 Design Criteria 314

6.9 Physical Design and Construction 314

6.9.1 Earthwork 314

6.9.2 Liners 316

6.9.3 Inlet and Outlet Structures 316

6.9.4 Vegetation 318

6.10 Operation and Maintenance 320

6.10.1 Vegetation Establishment 320

6.10.2 Nuisance Animals 323

6.10.3 Mosquito Control 323

6.10.4 Monitoring 324

6.11 Costs 324

6.11.1 Geotechnical Investigations 325

6.11.2 Clearing and Grubbing 326

6.11.3 Earthwork 326

6.11.4 Liners 327

6.11.5 Vegetation Establishment 327

6.11.6 Inlet and Outlet Structures 327

6.11.7 Piping, Equipment, and Fencing 328

6.11.8 Miscellaneous 328

6.12 Troubleshooting 328

References 329

Chapter 7 Subsurface and Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands 335

7.1 Hydraulics of Subsurface Flow Wetlands 335

7.2 Thermal Aspects 339

7.3 Performance Expectations 343

7.3.1 BOD Removal 344

7.3.2 TSS Removal 344

7.3.3 Nitrogen Removal 344

7.3.4 Phosphorus Removal 345

7.3.5 Metals Removal 345

7.3.6 Pathogen Removal 345

7.4 Design of SSF Wetlands 346

7.4.1 BOD Removal 346

7.4.2 TSS Removal 347

7.4.3 Nitrogen Removal 347

7.4.3.1 Nitrification 349

7.4.3.2 Denitrification 351

7.4.3.3 Total Nitrogen 352

7.4.4 Aspect Ratio 352

7.5 Design Elements of Subsurface Flow Wetlands 353

7.5.1 Pretreatment 353

7.5.2 Media 353

7.5.3 Vegetation 353

7.5.4 Inlet Distribution 354

7.5.5 Outlet Collection 355

7.6 Alternative Application Strategies 355

7.6.1 Batch Flow 355

7.6.2 Reciprocating (Alternating) Dosing (TVA) 356

7.7 Potential Applications 356

7.7.1 Domestic Wastewater 356

7.7.2 Landfill Leachate 357

7.7.3 Cheese Processing Wastewater 357

7.7.4 Airport Deicing Fluids Treatment 357

7.8 Case Study: Minoa, New York 357

7.9 Nitrification Filter Bed 360

7.10 Design of On-Site Systems 364

7.11 Vertical-Flow Wetland Beds 366

7.11.1 Municipal Systems 368

7.11.2 Tidal Vertical-Flow Wetlands 369

7.11.3 Winery Wastewater 369

7.12 Construction Considerations 370

7.12.1 Vegetation Establishment 372

7.13 Operation and Maintenance 373

7.14 Costs 373

7.15 Troubleshooting 374

References 374

Chapter 8 Land Treatment Systems 379

8.1 Types of Land Treatment Systems 379

8.1.1 Slow-Rate Systems 379

8.1.2 Overland Flow Systems 379

8.1.3 Soil Aquifer Treatment Systems 382

8.2 Slow Rate Land Treatment 384

8.2.1 Design Objectives 384

8.2.1.1 Management Alternatives 384

8.2.2 Preapplication Treatment 384

8.2.2.1 Distribution System Constraints 386

8.2.2.2 Water Quality Considerations 386

8.2.2.3 Groundwater Protection 388

8.2.3 Design Procedure 388

8.2.4 Crop Selection 388

8.2.4.1 Type 1 System Crops 388

8.2.4.2 Type 2 System Crops 390

8.2.5 Hydraulic Loading Rates 392

8.2.5.1 Hydraulic Loading for Type 1 Slow-Rate Systems 390

8.2.5.2 Hydraulic Loading for Type 2 Slow-Rate Systems 391

8.2.6 Design Considerations 392

8.2.6.1 Nitrogen Loading Rate 392

8.2.6.2 Organic Loading Rate 394

8.2.6.3 Land Requirements 394

8.2.6.4 Storage Requirements 396

8.2.6.5 Distribution Techniques 400

8.2.6.6 Application Cycles 401

8.2.6.7 Surface Runoff Control 401

8.2.6.8 Underdrainage 401

8.2.7 Construction Considerations 401

8.2.8 Operation and Maintenance 402

8.3 Overland Flow Systems 402

8.3.1 Design Objectives 402

8.3.2 Site Selection 403

8.3.3 Treatment Performance 403

8.3.3.1 BOD Loading and Removal 403

8.3.3.2 Suspended Solids Removal 403

8.3.3.3 Nitrogen Removal 405

8.3.3.4 Phosphorus and Heavy Metal Removal 406

8.3.3.5 Trace Organics 406

8.3.3.6 Pathogens 407

8.3.4 Preapplication Treatment 407

8.3.5 Design Criteria 407

8.3.5.1 Application Rate 408

8.3.5.2 Slope Length 408

8.3.5.3 Hydraulic Loading Rate 409

8.3.5.4 Application Period 409

8.3.6 Design Procedure 409

8.3.6.1 Municipal Wastewater, Secondary Treatment 409

8.3.6.2 Industrial Wastewater, Secondary Treatment 409

8.3.7 Design Considerations 410

8.3.7.1 Land Requirements 410

8.3.7.2 Storage Requirements 411

8.3.7.3 Vegetation Selection 412

8.3.7.4 Distribution System 412

8.3.7.5 Runoff Collection 412

8.3.8 Construction Considerations 412

8.3.9 Operation and Maintenance 412

8.4 Soil Aquifer Treatment Systems 413

8.4.1 Design Objectives 413

8.4.2 Site Selection 413

8.4.3 Treatment Performance 413

8.4.3.1 BOD and TSS Removal 413

8.4.3.2 Nitrogen Removal 413

8.4.3.3 Phosphorus Removal 415

8.4.3.4 Heavy Metal Removal 415

8.4.3.5 Trace Organics 415

8.4.3.6 Endocrine Disruptors 419

8.4.3.7 Pathogens 420

8.4.4 Preapplication Treatment 420

8.4.5 Design Procedure 420

8.4.6 Design Considerations 421

8.4.6.1 Hydraulic Loading Rates 422

8.4.6.2 Nitrogen Loading Rates 422

8.4.6.3 Organic Loading Rates 423

8.4.6.4 Land Requirements 423

8.4.6.5 Hydraulic Loading Cycle 423

8.4.6.6 Infiltration System Design 424

8.4.6.7 Groundwater Mounding 424

8.4.7 Construction Considerations 425

8.4.8 Operation and Maintenance 426

8.4.8.1 Cold Climate Operation 426

8.4.8.2 System Management 425

8.5 Phytoremediation 425

8.6 Industrial Wastewater Management 427

8.6.1 Organic Loading Rates and Oxygen Balance 427

8.6.2 Total Acidity Loading 429

8.6.3 Salinity 430

References 431

Chapter 9 Sludge Management and Treatment 437

9.1 Sludge Quantity and Characteristics 437

9.1.1 Sludges from Natural Treatment Systems 440

9.1.2 Sludges from Drinking-Water Treatment 441

9.2 Stabilization and Dewatering 442

9.2.1 Methods for Pathogen Reduction 442

9.3 Sludge Freezing 443

9.3.1 Effects of Freezing 443

9.3.2 Process Requirements 443

9.3.2.1 General Equation 444

9.3.2.2 Design Sludge Depth 445

9.3.3 Design Procedures 445

9.3.3.1 Calculation Methods 446

9.3.3.2 Effect of Thawing 446

9.3.3.3 Preliminary Designs 446

9.3.3.4 Design Limits 446

9.3.3.5 Thaw Period 448

9.3.4 Sludge Freezing Facilities and Procedures 448

9.3.4.1 Effect of Snow 449

9.3.4.2 Combined Systems 449

9.3.4.3 Sludge Removal 449

9.3.4.4 Sludge Quality 450

9.4 Reed Beds 450

9.4.1 Function of Vegetation 451

9.4.2 Design Requirements 452

9.4.3 Performance 453

9.4.4 Benefits 454

9.4.5 Sludge Quality 455

9.5 Vermistabilization 456

9.5.1 Worm Species 456

9.5.2 Loading Criteria 456

9.5.3 Procedures and Performance 457

9.5.4 Sludge Quality 458

9.6 Comparison of Bed-Type Operations 458

9.7 Composting 459

9.8 Land Application and Surface Disposal of Biosolids 464

9.8.1 Concept and Site Selection 470

9.8.2 Process Design, Land Application 471

9.8.2.1 Metals 473

9.8.2.2 Phosphorus 475

9.8.2.3 Nitrogen 476

9.8.2.4 Calculation of Land Area 478

9.8.3 Design of Surface Disposal Systems 482

9.8.3.1 Design Approach 482

9.8.3.2 Data Requirements 483

9.8.3.3 Half-Life Determination 483

9.8.3.4 Loading Nomenclature 486

9.8.3.5 Site Details for Surface Disposal Systems 487

References 488

Chapter 10 On-Site Wastewater Systems 493

10.1 Types of On-Site Systems 493

10.2 Effluent Disposal and Reuse Options 494

10.3 Site Evaluation and Assessment 494

10.3.1 Preliminary Site Evaluation 497

10.3.2 Applicable Regulations 497

10.3.3 Detailed Site Assessment 498

10.3.4 Hydraulic Assimilative Capacity 499

10.4 Cumulative Areal Nitrogen Loadings 499

10.4.1 Nitrogen Loading from Conventional Effluent Leachfields 499

10.4.2 Cumulative Nitrogen Loadings 500

10.5 Alternative Nutrient

Removal Processes 501

10.5.1 Nitrogen Removal 501

10.5.1.1 Intermittent Sand Filters 501

10.5.1.2 Recirculating Gravel Filters 502

10.5.1.3 Septic Tank with Attached Growth Reactor 505

10.5.1.4 RSF2 Systems 507

10.5.1.5 Other Nitrogen Removal Methods 509

10.5.2 Phosphorus Removal 511

10.6 Disposal of Variously Treated Effluents in Soils 511

10.7 Design Criteria for On-Site Disposal Alternatives 512

10.7.1 Gravity Leachfields 512

10.7.2 Shallow Gravity Distribution 513

10.7.3 Pressure-Dosed Distribution 515

10.7.4 Imported Fill Systems 516

10.7.5 At-Grade Systems 516

10.7.6 Mound Systems 516

10.7.7 Artificially Drained Systems 517

10.7.8 Constructed Wetlands 517

10.7.9 Evapotranspiration Systems 518

10.8 Design Criteria for On-Site Reuse Alternatives 519

10.8.1 Drip Irrigation 519

10.8.2 Spray Irrigation 521

10.8.3 Graywater Systems 521

10.9 Correction of Failed Systems 521

10.9.1 Use of Effluent Screens 521

10.9.2 Use of Hydrogen Peroxide 522

10.9.3 Use of Upgraded Pretreatment 522

10.9.4 Retrofitting Failed Systems 522

10.9.5 Long-Term Effects of Sodium on Clay Soils 522

References 523

Appendices

Appendix 1. Metric Conversion Factors (SI to U.S. Customary Units) 529

Appendix 2. Conversion Factors for Commonly Used Design Parameters 533

Appendix 3. Physical Properties of Water 535

Appendix 4. Dissolved Oxygen Solubility in Freshwater 537

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