The principal removal mechanisms for TSS are flocculation and sedimentation in the bulk liquid and filtration (mechanical straining, chance contact, impaction, and interception) in the interstices of the detritus. Most of the settleable solids are removed within 50 to 100 ft (15 to 30 m) of the inlet. Optimal removal of TSS requires a full stand of vegetation to facilitate sedimentation and filtration and to prevent the regrowth of algae. Algal solids may require 6 to 10 days of detention time for removal. The removal rates of TSS in constructed wetlands are presented in Table 6.2.
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