Proximity to a surface water for discharge, impermeable soils or liner to minimize percolation, no steep slopes, out of flood plain, no bedrock or groundwater within excavation depth
Proximity to a surface water for discharge, impermeable soils or liner to minimize percolation, slopes 0-6%, out of flood plain, no bedrock or groundwater within excavation depth
Relatively impermeable soils, clay and clay loams, slopes 0-12%, depth to groundwater and bedrock not critical but 0.5-1 m desirable, must have access to surface water for discharge or point of water reuse
Overland flow (OF)
Underdrained slow rate (SR) and For SR, same as tables in Chapter 1 and Table 2.2 except requirement for compliance is the quality measured in the percolate/groundwater as it reaches the project boundary.
As noted in Table 2.1, SR and SAT systems can include surface discharge from underdrains, recovery wells, or cutoff ditches. For example, the large SR system at Muskegon County, Michigan, has underdrains with a surface water discharge. For the forested SR system at Clayton County, Georgia, the subflow from the wastewater application leaves the site and enters the local streams. Although the subflow does emerge in surface streams, which are part of the community's drinking water supplies, the land treatment system is not considered to be a discharging system as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Georgia.
A preliminary determination of process feasibility and identification of potential sites are based on the analysis of maps and other information. The requirements shown in Table 2.1 and Table 2.2, along with an estimate of the land area required for each of the methods, are considered during this procedure. The sources of information and type of information needed are summarized in Table 2.3.
soil aquifer treatment (SAT)
for impermeable layer or high groundwater that requires the use of underdrains to remove percolating water; for SAT, wells or underdrains may remove percolating water for discharge
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