Soil texture and structure are particularly important when infiltration of water is a design factor. The textural classes and the general terms used in soil descriptions are listed in Table 2.15. Soil structure refers to the aggregation of soil particles into clusters of particles referred to as peds. Well-structured soils with large voids between peds will transmit water more rapidly than structureless soils of the same texture. Even fine-textured soils that are well structured can transmit large quantities of water. Earthmoving and related construction activity can alter or destroy the in situ soil structure and significantly change the natural permeability. Soil structure can be observed in the side walls of a test pit; refer to Black, (1965), Crites, et al. (2000), and Richards (1954) for additional details.
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