Freezing A method for conditioning and dewatering sludges in the winter months in cold climates; more effective and reliable than any of the available mechanical devices; can use existing sand beds
Compost A procedure to further stabilize and dewater sludges, with significant pathogen kill, so fewer restrictions are placed on end use of final product
Reed beds Narrow trenches or beds, with sand bottom and underdrained; planted with reeds; vegetation assists water removal
Land apply Application of liquid or partially dried sludge on agricultural, forested, or reclamation land
Must have freezing weather long enough to completely freeze the design sludge layer
Requires a bulking agent and mechanical equipment for mixing and sorting; winter operations can be difficult in cold climates Best suited in warm to moderate climates; annual harvest and disposal of vegetation are required State and federal regulations limit the annual and cumulative loading of metals, etc.
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