Typical varieties are Carex aquatilis (water sedge), Carex lacustris (lake sedge), and Carex stricata (tussock sedge). Distribution is worldwide. Optimum pH is 5 to 7.5. Salinity tolerance is <0.5 ppt. Growth is moderate to slow, via rhizomes; lateral spread is <0.5 ft/yr (0.15 m/yr), providing dense cover in 1 year with plants spaced at 0.5 ft (0.15 m). Annual yield is <4 (dw) ton/yr (5 mt/ha). Tissue (on a dw basis) is approximately 1% N, 0.1% P; 50% solids. With regard to habitat values, sedges are a food source for numerous birds and moose. Some types can sustain permanent inundation; others require a dry-down period. Other plants are better suited as the major species for wastewater wetlands; sedges are well suited as a peripheral planting for habitat enhancement.

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