The development of a waste treatment project, either municipal or industrial, involves consideration of institutional and social issues in addition to the technical factors. These issues influence and can often control decisions during the planning and preliminary design stages. The current regulatory requirements at the federal, state, and local level are particularly important. The engineer must determine these requirements at the earliest possible stage of project development to ensure that the concepts under consideration are institutionally feasible. Deese (1981), Forster and Southgate (1983), and USEPA (1981) provide useful guidance on the institutional and social aspects of project development. Table 1.5 provides summary guidance on the technical requirements for project development and indicates chapters in this book that describe the required criteria. Detailed information on waste characterization and the civil and mechanical engineering details of design are not unique to natural systems and are therefore not included in this text. Metcalf and Eddy (1981, 2003) are recommended for that purpose.
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