A rapid method, useful for feasibility assessment and preliminary design, relates the potential depth of frozen sludge to the maximum depth of frost penetration into the soil at a particular location. The depth of frost penetration is also dependent on the freezing index for a particular location; published values can be found in the literature (e.g., Penner, 1962; Whiting, 1975). Equation 9.4 correlates the total depth of sludge that could be frozen if applied in 3-in. (8-cm) increments with the maximum depth of frost penetration:
where 1,Y is the total depth of sludge that can be frozen in 3-in. (8-cm) layers during the warmest design year, in inches or centimeters, and Fp is the maximum depth of frost penetration, in inches or centimeters. The maximum depths of frost penetration for selected locations in the northern United States and Canada are reported in Table 9.8.
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