Natural systems for the treatment and management of municipal and industrial wastewaters and residuals feature processes that use minimal energy and minimal or no chemicals, and they produce relatively lower amounts of residual solids. This book is intended for the practicing engineers and scientists who are involved in the planning, design, construction, evaluation, and operation of wastewater management facilities.
The focus of the text is on wastewater management processes that provide passive treatment with a minimum of mechanical elements. Use of these natural systems often results in sustainable systems because of the low operating requirements and a minimum of biosolids production. Natural systems such as wetlands, sprinkler or drip irrigation, and groundwater recharge also result in water recycling and reuse.
The book is organized into ten chapters. The first three chapters introduce the planning procedures and treatment mechanisms responsible for treatment in ponds, wetlands, land applications, and soil absorption systems. Design criteria and methods of pond treatment and pond effluent upgrading are presented in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. Constructed wetlands design procedures, process applications, and treatment performance data are described in Chapter 6 and Chapter 7. Land treatment concepts and design equations are described in Chapter 8. Residuals and biosolids management are presented in Chapter 9. A discussion of on-site wastewater management, including nitrogen removal pretreatment methods, is presented in Chapter 10. In all chapters, U.S. customary and metric units are used.
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