Nitrogen can be removed in pond systems by plant or algal uptake, nitrification and denitrification, adsorption, sludge deposition, and loss of ammonia gas to the atmosphere (volatilization). In facultative wastewater treatment ponds, the dominant mechanism is believed to be volatilization, and under favorable conditions up to 80% of the total nitrogen present can be lost. The rate of removal depends on pH, temperature, and detention time. The amount of gaseous ammonia present at near-neutral pH levels is relatively low, but when some of this gas is lost to the atmosphere additional ammonium ions shift to the ammonia form to maintain equilibrium. Although the unit rate of conversion and loss may be very low, the long detention time in these ponds compensates, resulting in very effective removal over the long term. Chapter 4 presents equations describing this nitrogen removal in ponds that can be used for design. Because nitrogen is often the controlling design parameter for land treatment, a reduction in pond effluent nitrogen can often permit a very significant reduction in the land area needed for wastewater application, with a comparable savings in project costs.
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What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.