Designers and owners of small systems are strongly encouraged to use technology that is as simple as feasible. Experience has shown that small communities, or large ones without properly trained operating personnel and access to spare parts, that use sophisticated technology inevitably encounter serious maintenance problems and frequently fail to meet effluent standards. Methods discussed in this chapter that require good maintenance and operator skills are dissolved-air flotation, centrifugation, coagulation-flocculation, and granular media filtration (rapid sand or mixed media filters with chemical addition). At locations where operation and maintenance are available, these processes can be made to work well.
From the preceding sections, it is obvious that many methods of removing or controlling algae concentrations in lagoon effluents are available; however, selection of the proper method for a particular site is dependent on many variables. Small communities with limited resources and untrained operating personnel should select as simple a system as applicable to their site situation.
In rural areas with adequate land, lagoons such as controlled discharge lagoons or hydrograph controlled release lagoons are an excellent choice. In arid
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