Metals Removal

Limited data are available on metals removal using municipal wastewater in SSF systems. In acid mine drainage systems, removal of iron and manganese is significant. Total iron has been shown to be reduced from 14.3 to 0.8 mg/L and total manganese from 4.8 to 1.1 mg/L (Brodie et al., 1989). At Santee, California, removal of copper, zinc, and cadmium was 99%, 97%, and 99%, respectively, during a 5.5-d detention time (Gersberg et al., 1984). The removal of metals at the Hardin, Kentucky, SSF system is presented in Table 7.4. The Hardin system has an activated sludge system for pretreatment, an HRT of 3.3 d, and two parallel cells, one planted to Phragmites and one planted to Scirpus.

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