• The models deal only with input wastewater volume (Q). This does not allow for compensation for water gains and losses in the design calculations.

• The FWS database used for development of these models includes a large number of lightly loaded polishing wetland systems. Use of these data may produce low-valued rate constants (K) that might in turn result in unnecessarily large wetland system designs.

• The internal position of the background concentration (C*) and safety factor (z) terms in the models for determining wetland area may result in excessive wetland sizes to achieve low concentrations.

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