Land Requirements

The field area required for OF depends on the flow, the required storage, and the loading rate. For an OF system that operates without storage, the field area is calculated using Equation 8.11:


A = Field area (ac; ha). Q = Design wastewater flow (mgd; m3/d). F = Conversion factor (36.8 ac-in./Mgal). Lw = Hydraulic loading rate (in./d; mm/d).

If wastewater must be stored because of cold weather, the field area is determined using Equation 8.12:


A = Field area (ac). Q = Design wastewater flow (mgd).

VS = Net gain or loss in storage volume from precipitation, evaporation, and seepage (Mgal). F = Conversion factor (36.8 ac-in./Mgal). D = Number of operating days per year. Lw = Hydraulic loading rate (in./d).

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